Authors: Burke Johnson and Larry Christensen
Pub Date: September 2010
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Chapter 1. Introduction to Educational Research
Mercier, C., Piat, M., Peladeau, N., & Dagenais, C. (2000).
An application of theory-driven evaluation to a drop-in youth center. Evaluation Review, 24 (1), 73-91.
AbstractThis article reports on the theory-driven evaluation of a drop-in center for youth that incorporated a literature search, concept mapping with staff, and focus groups with youth. Findings revealed strong agreement among the three sources of data around specific elements identified as critical components of a program theory of global prevention in after-school-hours initiatives, such as drop-in centers. These results are used to illustrate how a theory-driven approach was relevant for the context and objectives of this evaluation, as well as how it was used to develop knowledge useful for action, social intervention theory, and further research.
Mary Brydon-Miller, Davydd Greenwood, and Patricia Maguire.
Why Action Research? Action Research, Jul 2003; vol. 1: pp. 9 - 28.
AbstractMembers of the editorial board of Action Research responded to the question, `Why action research?' Based on their responses and the authors' own experiences as action researchers, this article examines common themes and commitments among action researchers as well as exploring areas of disagreement and important avenues for future exploration. We also use this opportunity to welcome readers of this new journal and to introduce them to members of the editorial board.
DeBlase, G.L. (2003).
Missing stories, missing lives: Urban girls (re)constructing race and gender in the literacy classroom. Urban Education, 38 (3), 279-329.
AbstractIn this critical ethnography, interpretivist methods were used to focus on the perspectives of African American, Latina, and Native American girls in an urban middle-school classroom to better understand how they constructed social identities of gender and race through their experiences with literacy. Because the enacted curriculum lacked critical awareness of the sociocultural contexts of gender and race, the perspectives of the girls in this classroom were largely missing from transactions with literacy. Consequently, girls' efforts to make intertextual links to their own lived stories were not taken up in meaningful ways. Transactions with literacy created a felt sense of fractured or compartmentalized social identities, and the girls in this study learned to separate their public, academic lives from their private lives. As a result, the girls did not take up the literature in ways that could potentially enable them to realize social and cognitive transformation in their lives.
Renzulli, J.S., & Park, S. (2000).
Gifted dropouts: The who and the why. Gifted Child Quarterly, 44 (4): 261-271.
AbstractTwo studies were conducted to obtain comprehensive information about ifted high school dropouts and to examine factors that are related to their dropout behavior using the Dropout and Student questionnaires of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). The results indicated that mwny gifted dropouts were from low socioeconomic-status families and racial minority groups; had parents with low levels of education; and participated less in extracurricular activities. Also, reasons for gifted male dropouts were More related to econornic issues, while reasons for gifted teniale dropouts were more related to personal issues, although both males and femiales were likely to offer school-related reasons. The logistic regression analysis results indicated that dropout behavior for gifted students was significantly related to students' educational aspirations. pregnancy or child-rearing, gender, father's highest level of education, and mother's highest level of education.
Hilary Bradbury Huang.
What is good action research?: Why the resurgent interest? Action Research 2010 8: 93-109.
Chapter 2. Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Predictors of aggression at school: The effect of school-related alcohol use. NASSP Bulletin, 87 (636), 38-54.
AbstractSchool-related alcohol use is a large but understudied problem in American schools. This investigation examined factors related to aggression at school, particularly the role of alcohol use. School aggression was higher among students who were male, rebellious, had a weak sense of school identification, low academic achievement, and engaged in alcohol use during the school day. General alcohol use was not related to school aggression beyond the effect of school-related alcohol use. Schools that encourage school involvement and alcohol resistance may help prevent problems of student aggression.
Davis, R.E. (2002).
The strongest women: Exploration of the inner resources of abused women. Qualitative Health Research, 12 (9), 1248-1263.
AbstractDomestic violence is reaching epidemic proportions and is designated a national health crisis in the United States. Yet, the stories of abused women and their experiences are only just recently appearing in the literature. The use of coping strategies in dealing with abusive intimate partners is one such area that invites further research. Using the phenomenological method, 17 volunteers discuss their inner resources for surviving abusive experiences and developing ways to protect themselves in future relationships. Women's accounts of abuse experiences add depth to what is known about their strength and portray them as survivors rather than as victims. Future research is called for that adds to the understanding of the inner resources attributed to the women in the study findings.
Johnson, R.B., Onwuegbuzie, A.J., & Turner, L.A. (2007).
Toward a definition of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1 (2), 112-133.
AbstractThe purpose of this article is to examine how the field of mixed methods currently is being defined. The authors asked many of the current leaders in mixed methods research how they define mixed methods research. The authors provide the leaders' definitions and discuss the content found as they searched for the criteria of demarcation. The authors provide a current answer to the question, What is mixed methods research? They also briefly summarize the recent history of mixed methods and list several issues that need additional work as the field continues to advance. They argue that mixed methods research is one of the three major "research paradigms" (quantitative research, qualitative research, and mixed methods research). The authors hope this article will contribute to the ongoing dialogue about how mixed methods research is defined and conceptualized by its practitioners.
Participatory action research: First-person perspectives of a graduate student. Action Research, Dec 2006; vol. 4: pp. 419 - 437
AbstractThis article examines the tensions and challenges of a graduate student maneuvering the institutional hierarchies in her journey of participatory action research (PAR). By using a first-person action research framework, the researcher moves back and forth exploring the prose of others, and revealing her reflexive self-inquiry of underlying assumptions and beliefs. Iterations of insider-outsider positionality, drawing on and integrating paradigms, reconciling multiple roles and perspectives, exploring the complexity of power relations, and uncovering the promises and perils of PAR, moves the researcher toward a partnership with her community of inquiry. First-person action research unfolds a process of self-transformation.
Chapter 3. How to Review the Literature and Develop Research Questions
Boote, D.N., & Beile, P. (2005).
Scholars before researchers: On the centrality of the dissertation literature review in research preparation. Educational Researcher, 34 (6), 3-15.
AbstractA thorough, sophisticated literature review is the foundation and inspiration for substantial, useful research. The complex nature of education research demands such thorough, sophisticated reviews. Although doctoral education is a key means for improving education research, the literature has given short shrift to the dissertation literature review. This article suggests criteria to evaluate the quality of dissertation literature reviews and reports a study that examined dissertations at three universities. Acquiring the skills and knowledge required to be education scholars, able to analyze and synthesize the research in a field of specialization, should be the focal, integrative activity of predissertation doctoral education. Such scholarship is a prerequisite for increased methodological sophistication and for improving the usefulness of education research.
Lauer, P.A., Akiba, M., Wilkerson, S.B., Apthorp, H.S., Snow, D., & Martin-Glenn, M.L. (2006).
Out-of-School-Time programs: A meta-analysis of effects for at-risk students. Review of Educational Research, 76 (2), 275-313.
AbstractSchools and districts are adopting out-of-school-time (OST) programs such as after-school programs and summer schools to supplement the education of low-achieving students. However, research has painted a mixed picture of their effectiveness. To clarify OST impacts, this synthesis examined research on OST programs for assisting at-risk students in reading and/or mathematics. Researchers analyzed 35 OST studies that employed control or comparison groups and met other inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses indicated small but statistically significant positive effects of OST on both reading and mathematics student achievement and larger positive effect sizes for programs with specific characteristics such as tutoring in reading. Whether the OST program took place after school or during the summer did not make a difference in effectiveness.
Julian Kitchen and Dianne Stevens
Action research in teacher education: Two teacher-educators practice action research as they introduce action research to preservice teachers. Action Research, Mar 2008; vol. 6: pp. 7 - 28.
AbstractTwo teacher-educators, an instructor and a teaching assistant, designed an action research project focused on enhancing their professional practice and the practice of their students by introducing the preservice teachers to action research. Both teacher-educators viewed this decision as progressive and emancipatory, as action research encourages inquiry and reflection, connects theory to practice, and creates links between preservice and in-service teaching. Simultaneously, the teacher-educators integrated preservice curriculae, modeling the enriched teaching and learning that can result from an interdisciplinary approach. Data include preservice teachers' action research proposals, reports and reflections, as well as the teacher-educators' reflections and collaborative conversations. Instructors used self-study methodology to reflect on their effectiveness in enhancing the professional lives of their students and themselves. A significant number of preservice teachers indicated that engaging in action research expanded their conceptions of teaching; such expansion holds potential for fostering change in schools.
Chapter 4. How to Write a Research Proposal
Rawnsley, D.E. (1979).
Proposal writing made palatable. NASSP Bulletin , 63 , 60-66.
AbstractProposal writing, while not an easy task, need not be an unpleasant one. The checklist and suggestions provided here should help to assure that is the case.
Morse, J.M. (2003).
A review committee's guide for evaluating qualitative proposals. Qualitative Health Research, 13 (6), 833-851.
AbstractAlthough they complain that qualitative proposals are not reviewed fairly when funding agencies use quantitative criteria, qualitative researchers have failed the system by not developing alternative criteria for the evaluation of qualitative proposals. In this article, the author corrects this deficit by presenting criteria to assess the relevance, rigor, and feasibility of qualitative research. These criteria are not a checklist but rather a series of questions that can aid a reviewer, adept in qualitative methods, to comprehensively evaluate and defend qualitative research.
Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2003).
Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project. Qualitative Health Research, 13 (6), 781-820.
AbstractWriting the proposal for a qualitative research methodology study is a double challenge because of the emergent nature of qualitative research design and because a methodology study entails describing a process to produce a process. How the authors addressed this challenge is shown in the annotated text of the grant proposal"Analytic Techniques for Qualitative Metasynthesis funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research. Appealing qualitative research proposals adhere to principles that engage writers and readers in an informative and mutually respectful interaction.
St. Pierre, E.A. (2006).
Scientifically based research in education: Epistemology and ethics. Adult Education Quarterly, 56 (4), 239-266.
AbstractIn this article, the author begins to trace the concept scientifically based research in federal legislation, in the Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences, and in the reports of several National Research Council committees. She also discusses how this concept has produced a certain scientism that has been deployed to attempt to control the field of educational research. She points out, however, that scientifically based research treats methodology as if it can be separated from epistemology and thus forgets that different bodies of knowledge and thought make different sciences possible. Thus, science is not one thing, as those who support scientifically based research often claim. Finally, the author suggests that our task as education scholars, researchers, and policy makers in this age of accountability is to engage rather than exclude epistemologies not our own that may help us produce different knowledge and produce knowledge differently.
Chapter 5. Research Ethics
Gordon, W., & Sork, T.J. (2001).
Ethical issues and codes of ethics: Views of adult education practitioners in Canada and the United States. Adult Education Quarterly, 51 (3), 202-218.
AbstractAlthough the ethics of practice has become increasingly visible in the adult education literature over the past two decades, little empirical research has been done to inform the dialogue and debate. The purpose of this study was to examine the views of adult education practitioners in British Columbia about the need for a code of ethics and about the ethical issues, concerns, and dilemmas experienced in their practice. The study was an approximate replication of research carried out in Indiana reported by McDonald and Wood. This study was undertaken to broaden the empirical database within adult education, provide further insight into the ethics of practice, and determine similarities and differences between Canadian and American adult educators in their encounters with ethical issues and their views about codes of ethics. Major findings confirm positive practitioner views about codes of ethics and are generally consistent with the findings reported by McDonald and Wood.
Mary Brydon-Miller, Davydd Greenwood, and Olav Eikeland.
Conclusion: Strategies for addressing ethical concerns in action research. Action Research, Mar 2006; vol. 4: pp. 129 - 131.
Chapter 6. Standardized Measurement and Assessment
Finney, S.J., Pieper, S.L., Barron, K.E. (2004).
Examining the psychometric properties of the achievement goal questionnaire in a general academic context. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64 (2), 365-382.
AbstractThe psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ), when modified for a general academic context, were examined. Previous research has found evidence of a four-factor structure of achievement goal orientation when this measure was used in a course-specific context. This study is an important addition to goal orientation research for the following two reasons: (a) It provides additional support for four distinct factors of goal orientation, and (b) it answers the call for examining achievement goal orientation measures at different levels of specificity. The authors found that the four-factor structure of goal orientation replicated when used in a general academic context.
Gullone, E., Moore, S., Moss, S., & Boyd, C. (2000).
The adolescent risk-taking questionnaire: Development and psychometric evaluation. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15 (2), 231-250.
AbstractCompared to other life periods, adolescence is characterized by a heightened potential for risky behaviors. This study reports the systematic development and psychometric evaluation of a comprehensive Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire (ARQ). It was developed using reports of 570 adolescents and was psychometrically evaluated with a sample of 925 adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age. Principal components analyses yielded a four-factor risk structure, and these factors were substantiated via a confirmatory factor analysis. One week test-retest and internal consistency indices were demonstrated to be sound. Age and gender differences were found to be consistent with reported trends in accident data. Older adolescents and boys reported lower risk perceptions and a higher frequency of risky behaviors than younger adolescents and girls, respectively, supporting the validity of the ARQ. Furthermore, consistent with past research, perceiving higher levels of risk typically related to lower levels of engaging in the respective behaviors.
Johnson, B., Stevens, J.J., & Zvoch, K. (2007).
Teachers' perceptions of school climate: A validity study of scores from the revised school level environment questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67 (5), 833-844.
AbstractScores from a revised version of the School Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ) were validated using a sample of teachers from a large school district. An exploratory factor analysis was used with a randomly selected half of the sample. Five school environment factors emerged. A confirmatory factor analysis was run with the remaining half of the sample. Goodness-of-fit indices indicated that the factor structure fit the data reasonably well. Further analyses using structural equation modeling techniques revealed that the Revised SLEQ worked equally well for all samples. Invariance testing showed that the fitted model and the estimated parameter values were statistically equivalent across all samples. Internal consistency estimates provided further evidence of the reliability of factor scores. In addition, an analysis of variance indicated that the instrument discriminated climate differences between schools. Results suggest that the Revised SLEQ provides a good tool for studying teachers' perceptions of school climate.
Harris, S.M., & Halpin, G. (2002).
Development and validation of the factors influencing pursuit of higher education questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62 (1), 79-96.
AbstractThis article addresses the development and validation of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education (FIPHE) Questionnaire, a 92-item self-report measure that investigates factors that influence individuals to pursue higher education. Reliability estimates for the nine FIPHE scale scores ranged from .66 to .90. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on data from a sample (N = 509) of college students enrolled in two south-eastern universities. The data were subjected to principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Although the researchers hypothesized 10 scales for the questionnaire, the results revealed that a nine-factor solution produced the most interpretable factor patterns. The nine-factor solution accounted for 43% of the common variance. Limitations of the research and implications for future research are discussed.
Beyers, W., & Goossens, L. (2002).
Concurrent and predictive validity of the student adaptation to college questionnaire in a sample of European freshman students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62 (3), 527-538.
AbstractThis study represents the first attempt to examine the validity of scores on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ) in a sample of European university students. Concurrent validity was established through significant correlations in the expected direction with alternative measures of student adjustment (academic motivation, loneliness, depression, and general adjustment to university). Further concurrent validity evidence for selected subscales was provided through moderate associations with students' engagement in social activities and their self-reported use of psychological services provided on campus. Findings regarding predictive validity, as assessed through correlations with student attrition and academic results, went in the expected direction but were somewhat less convincing. The latter results are explained in terms of differences between European and North American systems of higher education. With some reservations regarding the Academic Adjustment subscale, then, the SACQ seems to be a useful tool for research on university life among college students in Europe.
Chapter 7. How to Construct a Questionnaire
Schwarz, N., & Oyserman, D. (2001).
Asking questions about behavior: Cognition, communication, and questionnaire construction. American Journal of Evaluation, 22 (2), 127-160.
AbstractEvaluation researchers frequently obtain self-reports of behaviors, asking program participants to report on process and outcome-relevant behaviors. Unfortunately, reporting on one's behavior poses a difficult cognitive task, and participants' reports can be profoundly influenced by question wording, format, and context. We review the steps involved in answering a question about one's behavior and highlight the underlying cognitive and communicative processes. We alert researchers to what can go wrong and provide theoretically grounded recommendations for pilot testing and questionnaire construction.
Edwards, J.E., & Thomas, M.D. (1993).
The organizational survey process: General steps and practical considerations. American Behavioral Scientist, 36 (4), 419-442.
Chapter 8. Methods of Data Collection
DuBois, D.L., Lockerd, E.M., Reach, K., & Parra, G.R. (2003).
Effective strategies for esteem-enhancement: What do young adolescents have to say? The Journal of Early Adolescence, 23 (4), 405-434.
AbstractFocus groups were conducted with young adolescents ( N = 61) to obtain a consumer perspective on esteem-enhancement strategies for their age group. Overall, the input obtained supports a comprehensive, psychosocial/developmental approach. To address the views and preferences expressed by young adolescents, program content should (a) provide esteem-enhancing experiences in multiple domains of early adolescent development, (b) reduce reliance on "unhealthy" sources of self-esteem, and (c) be sensitive to diversity in participant backgrounds (e.g., race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status). Program designs should (a) be inclusive (i.e., include all youth) and involve multiple important persons in young adolescents'lives; (b) emphasize an experiential, individualized approach; (c) allow for participation over extended periods of time; and (d) incorporate strong linkages to the surrounding community. Based on current findings and related research, the need for esteem-enhancement strategies that are environmentally oriented and integrated within broader youth development initiatives is emphasized.
Chapter 9. Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
O'Connell, A.A. (2000).
Sampling for evaluation: Issues and strategies for community-based HIV prevention programs. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 23 (2), 212-234.
AbstractSampling methods are an important issue in the evaluation of community-based HIV prevention initiatives because it is through responsible sampling procedures that a valid model of the population is produced and reliable estimates of behavior change determined. This article provides an overview on sampling with particular focus on the needs of community-based organizations (CBOs). As these organizations continue to improve their capacity for sampling and program evaluation activities, comparisons across CBOs can become more rigorous, resulting in valuable information collectively regarding the effectiveness of particular HIV prevention initiatives. The author reviews several probability and nonprobability sampling designs; discusses bias, cost, and feasibility factors in design selection; and presents six guidelines designed to encourage community organizations to consider these important sampling issues as they plan their program evaluations.
Luborsky, M.R., & Rubinstein, R.L. (1995).
Sampling in qualitative research: Rationale, issues, and methods. Research on Aging, 17 (1), 89-113.
AbstractIn gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampling in qualitative research. It then describes common questions about sampling in qualitative research. In conclusion it proposes the concept of qualitative clarity as a set of principles (analogous to statistical power) to guide assessments of qualitative sampling in a particular study or proposal.
Teddlie, C., & Yu, F. (2007).
Mixed methods sampling: A typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1 (1), 77-100.
AbstractThis article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and purposive sampling and the probability-mixed-purposive sampling continuum. Four MM sampling prototypes are introduced: basic MM sampling strategies, sequential MM sampling, concurrent MM sampling, and multilevel MM sampling. Examples of each of these techniques are given as illustrations of how researchers actually generate MM samples. Finally, eight guidelines for MM sampling are presented.
Chapter 10. Validity of Research Results in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Kim D. Reynolds and Stephen G. West.
A Multiplist Strategy for Strengthening Nonequivalent Control Group Designs. Evaluation Review, Dec 1987; vol. 11: pp. 691 – 71.
Amy B. Dellinger and Nancy L. Leech.
Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Oct 2007; vol. 1: pp. 309 - 332.
Chapter 11. Experimental Research
Jones, L.P., Harris, R., & Finnegan, D. (2002).
School attendance demonstration project: An evaluation of a program to motivate public assistance teens to attend and complete school in an urban school district. Research on Social Work Practice, 12 (2), 222-237.
AbstractObjective: This article reports on the evaluation of The School Attendance Demonstration Project (SADP). SADP is an intervention aimed at improving the school attendance rates of 16-to-18 year-olds receiving public assistance. Method: Experimental group students attending school less than 80% of the time received a notice to attend an orientation for services. Students who continued to attend school less than 80%, did not attend the orientation, and could not show good cause for attendance were sanctioned. The study used a control group with random assignment. Results: Data show that in any month, more experimental group students met the attendance rule than did control group students. Logistic regression predicted that females, Hispanics, students from single-parent families, and those attending alternative schools had difficulty meeting attendance requirements. Conclusions: The findings suggest that at-risk teens need alternative strategies from sanctions to encourage school attendance.
Batchelder, J.S., & Rachal, J.R. (2000).
Efficacy of a computer-assisted instruction program in a prison setting: An experimental study. Adult Education Quarterly, 50 (2), 120-133.
AbstractThe efficacy of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with inmates participating in a prison education program was examined through an experimental study. The researchers sought to address and correct many of the methodological flaws commonly present among studies that compare a CAI-plus-traditional-instruction combination to traditional-instruction alone. Seventy-one inmates were randomly assigned to either an experimental group that received a CAI-plus-traditional-instruction combination, or a control group that received traditional instruction only. Achievement scores of inmates in the experimental group were not significantly higher than those in the control group.
Chapter 12. Quasi-Experimental and Single-Case Designs
Conyers, L.M., Reynolds, A.J., & Ou, S. (2003).
The effect of early childhood intervention and subsequent special education services: Findings from the Chicago child-parent centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25 (1), 75-95.
AbstractThis article explores patterns of special education services during the elementary grades among children who participated in either the Child-Parent Center (CPC) Preschool Program or other early childhood programs in the Chicago Public Schools. The study sample included 1,377 low-income, racial minority children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Controlling for family background characteristics that might affect educational performance, children who participated in Child-Parent Center preschool had a significantly lower rate of special education placement (12.5%) than the comparison group (18.4%), who participated in an alternative all-day kindergarten program. The estimated impact of CPC preschool intervention was best explained by the cognitive advantage hypothesis. This article provides support for the long-term impact of the CPC preschool intervention on special education outcomes.
Fraser, K., Wallis, M., & St. John, W. (2004).
Improving children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours: An evaluative study of a single session parent education programme. Health Education Journal, 63 (3), 229-241.
AbstractObjective To evaluate the effectiveness of a 'single session' group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the Fun not Fuss with Food group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours. Design A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before and twice following the intervention. Setting A health district within the southeast region of Queensland, Australia. Method Data were collected using the Children's Eating and Mealtime Behaviour Inventory - Revised (CEBI-R) and the Family Demographic Questionnaire. Results Parents who attended the Fun not Fuss with Food group programme reported significant improvements in their child's problem eating and mealtime behaviours and reported reductions in parental concerns regarding their child's eating and mealtime behaviours. Conclusion A single session, early intervention, group education programme for families with children with problem eating and mealtime behaviours is appropriate and effective. Therefore, early intervention group education programmes should be considered as a strategy for this client group.
Reinke, W.M., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Martin, E. (2007).
The effect of visual performance feedback on teacher use of behavior-specific praise. Behavior Modification, 31 (3), 247-263.
AbstractThis study evaluated the effects of visual performance feedback (VPF) on teacher use of behavior-specific praise. In addition to receiving individual VPF, teachers participated in group consultation focused on increasing competence in the use of behavior-specific praise. Three general education elementary teachers and six students participated in the study. Classroom peer composite data were also collected. Teacher and student behaviors were monitored across baseline and VPF conditions in a multiple baseline design. The results indicated that VPF resulted in an increase in behavior-specific praise for participating students across all teachers relative to baseline. Additionally, teachers increased their use of behavior-specific praise with classroom peers. The findings highlight the need for direct assessment of intervention implementation and for the collection of peer data to identify collateral intervention effects.
Chapter 13. Nonexperimenal Quantitative Research
Darling-Hammond, L., Chung, R., & Frelow, F. (2002).
Variation in teacher preparation: How well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach? Journal of Teacher Education, 53 (4), 286-302.
AbstractDoes teacher education influence what teachers feel prepared to do when they enter the classroom? Are there differences in teachers' experiences of classroom teaching when they enter through different programs and pathways? This study examines data from a 1998 survey of nearly 3000 beginning teachers in New York City regarding their views of their preparation for teaching, their beliefs and practice, and their plans to remain in teaching. The findings indicate that teachers who were prepared in teacher education programs felt significantly better prepared across most dimensions of teaching than those who entered teaching through alternative programs or without preparation. Teachers' views of their preparation varied across individual programs, with some programs graduating teachers who felt markedly better prepared. Finally, the extent to which teachers felt well prepared when they entered teaching was significantly correlated with their sense of teaching efficacy, their sense of responsibility for student learning, and their plans to remain in teaching.
Lopez, F.G., & Ann-Yi, S. (2006).
Predictors of career indecision in three racial/ethnic groups of college women. Journal of Career Development, 33 (1), 29-46.
AbstractThis study examines the contributions of career-related barrier and social support perceptions, barrier-related coping beliefs, and career decision-making self-efficacy beliefs to the prediction of career indecision in three racial/ethnic groups of college women. Results indicate that although there are no racial/ethnic differences across scores on most of the key measures, African American women perceive significantly greater career barriers than do either White or Hispanic women. Separate within-racial/ethnic group regressions of career indecision scores indicate that the full model collectively accounted for substantial amounts of criterion variance (range of R2 = .31 to .47), although the pattern of predictor contributions varies somewhat across the three groups.
Peltier, J.W., Schibrowsky, J.A., & Drago, W. (2007).
The interdependence of the factors influencing the perceived quality of the online learning experience: A causal model. Journal of Marketing Education, 29 (2), 140-153.
AbstractA structural model of the drivers of online education is proposed and tested. The findings help to identify the interrelated nature of the lectures delivered via technology outside of the traditional classroom, the importance of mentoring, the need to develop course structure, the changing roles for instructors and students, and the importance of designing and delivering course content on the enhancement of the online learning experience. The results support an integrated, building-block approach for developing successful online programs and courses.
Chapter 14. Qualitative Research
Lee, I., & Koro-Ljungberg, M. (2007).
A phenomenological study of Korean students' acculturation in middle schools in the USA. Journal of Research in International Education, 6 (1), 95-117.
AbstractThe purpose of this phenomenological interview study was to describe how visiting Korean students experience social adjustment and acculturation when attending US middle schools. As a result of phenomenological analysis, the essences of Korean students' social adjustment included: (1) descriptions of power struggles; (2) misconceptions of cultural differences; (3) coping behaviors; and (4) academic achievement. In conclusion, the authors argue that families and educators should strive to create an alternative form of nationalism that calls forth mutual understandings and cooperation that respects cultural dualism and negotiation.
Heather Schacht Reisinger.
Counting Apples as Oranges: Epidemiology and Ethnography in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Qualitative Health Research, Feb 2004; vol. 14: pp. 241 - 258.
AbstractIn spite of a history of collaboration between epidemiology and qualitative research, the mix of these two perspectives is not well developed in the substance use field. Part of the reason for the difficult match is that qualitative research often adds issues of context and meaning that complicate the epidemiological data of interest. In the substance use field, epidemiological indicators tend to focus on a single drug, but the context typically involves persons who use multiple illicit and licit substances in a variety of ways that change over time. In this article, the author describes four adolescents in an outpatient substance abuse treatment center to provide context and insight into the lives behind the epidemiological indicators. Studying a site of epidemiological data collection ethnographically is yet another way to build collaboration between epidemiology and qualitative research.
Terry, A.W. (2003).
Effects of service learning on young, gifted adolescents and their community. Gifted Child Quarterly, 47 (4), 295-308.
AbstractThis study examines the effects of the Community Action service learning project, part of the Learn and Serve America program, on gifted adolescents and their community. Using a case study design, the author investigates this service learning project grounded in creative problem solving. The importance of service learning to the participants is highlighted in the following themes that emerged from the data: instructional methodology, student development, attitudes, empowerment, commitment, and effects of celebration. A service learning typology based on levels of service and learning is referenced. The author examines connections to the Future Problem Solving Program and discusses the implications for further research, the education of the gifted, and the community.
Cranton, P., & Carusetta, E. (2004).
Perspectives on authenticity in teaching. Adult Education Quarterly, 55 (1), 5-22.
AbstractThe authors work with 22 educators from a variety of disciplines during a 3-year time span to understand what authentic teaching means and to explore how authenticity is manifested in practice. Using a grounded theory approach, the authors interview participants twice per year, observe their classes, and hold focus groups at the end of the project. Data interpretation reveals five dimensions of authenticity: self-awareness, awareness of others, relationships with learners, awareness of context, and a critically reflective approach to practice. Following grounded theory guidelines, the authors develop a model that incorporates the categories generated from the data and generate tentative hypotheses about practice.
David Coghlan and Rosalie Holian.
Editorial: insider action research. Action Research 2007 5: 5-10.
Chapter 15. Historical Research
Chapter 15 VanSledright, B. (2002).
Confronting history's interpretive paradox while teaching fifth graders to investigate the past. American Educational Research Journal, 39 (4), 1089-1115.
AbstractThis article reports on one facet of a researcher practitioner project undertaken with class of 23 diverse fifth graders. The project was rooted in taking recent history education reforms seriously. It was premised principally on reforms dealing with teaching practices found in the history standards and the research literature. As the researcher practitioner, the author engaged the students in historical investigations to help them learn to think historically and better understand the past. He operated from a theoretical framework based on how he believed historical thinking and understanding occur for such novice learners. During the first three lessons, on Jamestown's "Starving Time," the author and class encountered history's interpretive paradox. The article begins with an analogy drawn from the discipline of history. It then describes classroom events. The analysis focuses on a teaching dilemma that the encounter with the paradox provoked and conveys how the author's pedagogical thinking and decision making were influenced by that encounter. The discussion of the dilemma suggests how research and reform in history education and the theories that underpin them mingle, in promising but unpredictable ways.
Abu-Saad, I., & Champagne, D. (2006).
Introduction: A historical context of Palestinian Arab education. American Behavioral Scientist, 49 (8), 1035-1051.
AbstractThis introduction reviews the historical and political context that provides an essential background for exploring key contemporary issues in Palestinian Arab education in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Formal public education in Palestine, from its very beginnings, was never under the control of the Palestinian people but instead, has been controlled by successive colonial/external administrations. This introduction examines how major historical periods have affected the development of Palestinian Arab education from the Ottoman period (1516 to 1917) to the British Mandate period (1917 to 1948) to the post-1948 period after the establishment of Israel, which includes the post-1967 Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Oslo agreement period from 1993 to 2000, and the first and second Palestinian Intifadas.
Chapter 16. Mixed Research
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6 (1), 97.
AbstractThis article seeks to move beyond typologies of the ways in which quantitative and qualitative research are integrated to an examination of the ways that they are combined in practice. The article is based on a content analysis of 232 social science articles in which the two were combined. An examination of the research methods and research designs employed suggests that on the quantitative side structured interview and questionnaire research within a cross-sectional design tends to predominate, while on the qualitative side the semi-structured interview within a cross-sectional design tends to predominate. An examination of the rationales that are given for employing a mixed-methods research approach and the ways it is used in practice indicates that the two do not always correspond. The implications of this finding for how we think about mixed-methods research are outlined.
Genevieve M. Ames, Michael R. Duke, Roland S. Moore, and Carol B. Cunradi.
The Impact of Occupational Culture on Drinking Behavior of Young Adults in the U.S. Navy. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Apr 2009; vol. 3: pp. 129 - 150.
Chapter 17. Descriptive Statistics
Amadu Jacky Kaba.
Life Expectancy, Death Rates, Geography, and Black People: A Statistical World Overview. Journal of Black Studies, Jan 2009; vol. 39: pp. 337 - 347.
David A. Freedman
Statistical Models for Causation: What Inferential Leverage Do They Provide? Evaluation Review, Dec 2006; vol. 30: pp. 691 - 713.
Chapter 18. Inferential Statistics
What Future Quantitative Social Science Research Could Look Like: Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes Educational Researcher, Apr 2002; vol. 31: pp. 25 - 32.
AbstractAn improved quantitative science would emphasize the use of confidence intervals (CIs), and especially CIs for effect sizes. This article reviews some definitions and issues related to developing these intervals. Confidence intervals for effect sizes are especially valuable because they facilitate meta-analytic thinking and the interpretation of intervals via comparison with the effect intervals from related prior studies. Several recommendations for the thoughtful use of such CIs are presented.
Fidler, F. (2002).
The fifth edition of the APA publication manual: Why its statistics recommendations are so controversial. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62 (5), 749-770.
AbstractThe fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) draws on recommendations for improving statistical practices made by the APA Task Force on Statistical Inference (TFSI). The manual now acknowledges the controversy over null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and includes both a stronger recommendation to report effect sizes and a new recommendation to report confidence intervals. Drawing on interviews with some critics and other interested parties, the present review identifies a number of deficiencies in the new manual. These include lack of follow-through with appropriate explanations and examples of how to report statistics that are now recommended. At this stage, the discipline would be well served by a response to these criticisms and a debate over needed modifications.
Chapter 19. Data Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed Research
Yeh, C.J., & Inman, A.G. (2007).
Qualitative data analysis and interpretation in counseling psychology: Strategies for best practices. The Counseling Psychologist, 35 (3), 369-403.
AbstractThis article presents an overview of various strategies and methods of engaging in qualitative data interpretations and analyses in counseling psychology. The authors explore the themes of self, culture, collaboration, circularity, trustworthiness, and evidence deconstruction from multiple qualitative methodologies. Commonalities and differences that span across approaches are explored. Implications for how researchers address qualitative data analysis and interpretation in counseling psychology training and research are discussed.
Lewis, R.B. (2004).
NVivo 2.0 and ATLAS.ti 5.0: A comparative review of two popular qualitative data-analysis programs. Field Methods, 16 (4), 439-464.
Chapter 20. How to Prepare a Research Report and Use APA Style Guidelines
Statements of purpose for the different journals published by the American Educational Research Association. (2004). Statements of purpose for AERA journals. Educational Researcher, 32 (2), 42-53.
Dissemination in action research. Action Research 2009 7: 227-236.
AbstractLewin proposed three goals for action research: to advance knowledge; to improve a concrete situation; and to improve behavioral science methodology. The three objectives cannot be met by a single mode of dissemination. Innovative dissemination strategies will be necessary. Action researchers should publish substantive articles in technical journals to reach colleagues; applied articles in periodicals read by practitioners and the public; and methodological and reflective articles in associational and professional journals designed to improve the practice of action research.
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