Critical thinking Questions:
As you read each article, keep in mind the questions posed below. They will help you analyze the information presented and integrate it with information learned in the text.
- What is the main argument of this article?
- Why is this area important to examine in personality psychology?
- What data/evidence is provided to support the hypothesis?
- Do you believe that the evidence presented supports the author’s conclusion?
- Does the author make a persuasive argument? Why or why not?
- How does this article contribute to your understanding of personality psychology?
- What future theoretical and research questions does this article bring to mind? How would you go about addressing these questions?
Chapter 1: The Study of Personality: Introduction
Chapter 2: Historical Perspectives on Personality
Chapter 3: Personality Research
Chapter 4: Freud and the Dynamic Unconscious
Chapter 5: Psychoanalysis in Theory and Practice
Chapter 6: Freud’s Followers
Chapter 7: Psychiatric and Medical Models
Chapter 8: The Neo-Freudians
Chapter 9: Personality and Traits
Chapter 10: Behaviorist Views of Personality
Chapter 11: Humanistic Views of Personality
Chapter 12: Carl Rogers and Humanist Psychotherapy
Chapter 13: Early Cognitive Views of Personality
Chapter 14: Biology, Genetics, and the Evolution of Personality
Chapter 15: Abnormal Personality and Personality Disorders
Chapter 16: Albert Ellis and the Rational Emotive Behavioral Theory of Personality
Chapter 17: Religious, New Age, and Traditional Approaches to Personality
Chapter 1 articles:
Cacioppo, J. T. (2004).
Common sense, intuition, and theory in personality and social psychology.
Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 114-122.
This article discusses how theories of personality are formed and how newcomers to the field may infuse their own beliefs, which may be based on unsystematic experiences and observation, into their development of new theories. The role of mentors, critiques, and empirical tests in minimizing the deleterious effects of these entry biases is discussed.
Zickar, M. J., & Drasgow, F. (1996).
Detecting faking on a personality instrument using appropriateness measurement,
Applied Psychological Measurement, 20 , 71-87.
Research has demonstrated that people can and often do consciously manipulate scores on personality tests. Different measurements are discussed in assessing for dishonest respondents. Implications for operational testing and suggestions for further research are provided.
Chapter 2 articles:
Smith, M. B. (2005).
"Personality and social psychology": Retrospections and aspirations.
Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9 , 334-340.
This article provides comments on the qualities of the founding generation of social psychologists at mid-20th century (e.g., Allport, Lewin, Murphy, Murray, Newcomb, and Sherif). It discusses common features shared by these founders as well as lessons that can be applied to the field today.
Feshbach, S. (1984).
The "personality" of personality theory and research.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10, 446-456.
The objective of this article is to consider the changes that have taken place in the status of personality since the mid-1940s and to provide an overview of the current status of personality theory and research in the context of its history and challenge, and of likely future developments. Although there has been a decline in the status and salience of personality study relative to other areas of psychological research, recently there have been a number of signs suggesting that a revitalization of the area of personality is taking place.
Ash, M. G. (2005).
The uses and usefulness of psychology.
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 600, 99-114.
Psychology occupies a unique place among the sciences, as it is in between the methodological orientations derived from the physical and biological sciences and a subject matter that extends into the social and human sciences. This article traces the history of psychology and describes how different schools of thought have helped shape the field.
Chapter 3 articles:
Ferrando, P. J. (2004).
Person reliability in personality measurement: An item response theory analysis.
Applied Psychological Measurement, Vol. 28, 126-140. (2004)
This article discusses item response theory (IRT) model, based on Thurstone scaling, for personality measurement. Suggestions for applying the model to personality measurement and methodological objectives for future research are also discussed.
Nezlek, J. B. (2001).
Multilevel random coefficient analyses of event- and interval-contingent data in social and personality psychology research.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 771-785.
Increasingly, social and personality psychologists are conducting studies in which data are collected simultaneously at multiple levels, with hypotheses concerning effects that involve multiple levels of analysis. This article considers different analytic strategies to analyzing such data. Different modeling techniques, the specifics of formulating and testing hypotheses, and the differences between fixed and random effects are also considered.
Quackenbush, S. W. (2001).
Reliability as a value in personality research: A rejoinder to McCrae.
Theory & Psychology, 11, 845-851
This article is in response to McCrae and Costa's revised personality theory and provides an alternate view, with supporting arguments, to this theory. Four interrelated theses are offered by the author to help guide the future study of stability of personality traits.
Walsh-Bowers, R. (1995).
The reporting and ethics of the research relationship in areas of interpersonal psychology, 1939-89.
Theory & Psychology, 5, 233-250.
This study examined research reports published in the interpersonal areas of psychology from 1939 to 1989, focusing on authors' descriptions of the relationship between investigators and research participants. Analysis of 3001 articles is discussed and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
Chapter 4 articles:
Chowers, E. (2000).
Narrating the modern's subjection: Freud's theory of the Oedipal complex.
History of the Human Sciences, 13 , 23-45.
This article compares the post-Oedipal self with the selves envisioned by Nietzsche and Marx. The article suggests that 19th-century theorists constructed selves that are able to transcend the normalizing and subjugating circumstances of modernity, while Freud's theory defines a healthy self as irredeemably embedded in the prevailing culture and life-orders.
Person, E. S. (2005).
As the wheel turns: A centennial reflection on Freud's three essays on the theory of sexuality. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 53, 1257-1282.
This article examines the context in which Freud first proposed his psychological view of sexuality and his libido theory. It traces his ideas over time, and identifies how his ideas have influenced the development of psychoanalytic theory, and reports newer revisions to his ideas.
Quinney, A. (2004).
Psychoanalysis is on the Couch: France celebrates Freud in 2000.
French Cultural Studies, 15, 114-126.
This article assesses the public response in France in 2000 to the centenary celebration of the publication of Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams. It examines the view of psychoanalysis in the public’s view as well as addresses how a contemporary psychoanalytic approach responds to criticisms about the profession.
Chapter 5 articles:
Blatt, S. J., & Shahar, G. (2004).
Psychoanalysis-With whom, for what, and how? Comparisons with psychotherapy.
Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 52, 393-447.
This article addresses the need of psychoanalysis to provide empirical evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Analyses of data from the Menninger Psychotherapy Research Project (Wallerstein 1986) and implications of findings are discussed.
Valenstein, A. F. (2000).
The older patient in psychoanalysis.
Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 28, 1563-1589.
Eleven case presentations and various briefer clinical vignettes are discussed in this article. Conclusions from these presentations are that older individuals, who seek treatment themselves or who are appropriately referred, respond in a positive and effective fashion to psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.
Blatt, S. J. (1998).
Contributions of psychoanalysis to the understanding and treatment of depression.
Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 723-752.
This article aims to summarize the important contributions to basic clinical understanding of adaptive and maladaptive psychological development that psychoanalysis has made. It also examines the influence of psychoanalysis on understanding various forms of psychopathology in adults as deriving from disruptions of normal developmental processes, on conducting research on the psychotherapeutic process and outcomes.
Ilechukwu, S. T. (1999).
Oedipal anxiety and cultural variations in the incest taboo: A psychotherapy case study in the Nigerian setting.
Transcultural Psychiatry, 36 , 211-225.
This paper is a case study of long-term dynamic psychotherapy with a 34-year-old Nigerian ex-army officer with the onset of panic symptoms following the death of a neighbor. Therapy revealed ongoing conflict with his father, with peers at work, and in his marriage. The impact of taboos and cultural settings is discussed.
Chapter 6 articles:
Neher, A. (1996).
Jung's theory of archetypes: A critique.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 36, 61-91.
This critique examines Jung's theory of archetypes and focuses on Jung's belief that the origins of archetypes transcend the individual. The critique suggests that this belief is flawed and makes suggestions for the modification of Jung’s theory.
Jones, R. A. (2001).
The relevance of C.G. Jung.
Theory & Psychology, 11, 569-577.
This review essay considers recent contributions to the Jung literature by Pietikäinen, Stevens and Yates. All three books comment on the interplay between Jung's life and psychology, but interpret his writings very differently from each other.
LaFountain, R. M., & Mustaine, B. L. (1998).
Infusing Adlerian theory into an introductory marriage and family course.
The Family Journal, 6, 189-199.
In this article, the authors examine the contributions that Adlerian theory makes to the field of marriage and family counseling, specifically regarding key concepts, assessment techniques, goals and treatment interventions. The authors also detail strategies to help individuals gain an understanding of their own family of origin from an Adlerian perspective.
Smith, S., Mullis, F., Kern, R. M., & Brack. G. (1999).
An Adlerian model for the etiology of aggression in adjudicated adolescents.
The Family Journal, 7, 135-147.
This study investigated perceived parental rejection, family cohesion and adaptability, and levels of trait anger and anxiety and their relationship to the etiology of aggression in adolescents who have been adjudicated for assaultive crimes. An attempt was made to translate these psychological constructs into a theory-based model from the principles of individual psychology by Alfred Adler.
Chapter 7 articles:
Castro-Caldas, A. & Grafman, J. (2000).
Those were the (phrenological) days.
The Neuroscientist, 6, 297-302.
Phrenology, the theory based on the ideas of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828), is today often considered a pseudoscience and a reason for ironic comments. This article discusses how the methodology used for phrenology reveals interesting predictive aspects for what our current practice is today.
Mccrae, N. (2006).
‘A violent thunderstorm’: Cardiazol treatment in British mental hospitals.
History of Psychiatry, 17, 67-90.
This article highlights the effect of Cardiazol therapy on the history of treating psychiatric disorders. While it was the most widely used of the major somatic treatment innovations in Britain's public mental hospitals in the 1930s, it has received little notice. A discussion of the impact of Cardiazol, how it worked, and reasons for its decline are discussed.
Sethi, S., & Williams, R. A. (2003).
The family caregiving experience of outpatient ECT.
Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 9, 187-194.
This study examined the educational needs of the family in providing care to one of its members who is receiving outpatient ECT. Interviews with family members were conducted and major themes from these interviews were identified. Results of this study suggest that it is the care giving associated with severe depressive symptoms, rather than with the ECT, that creates family distress.
Cooper, R. (2004).
What is wrong with the DSM?
History of Psychiatry, 15, 5-25.
This article assesses some of the criticisms of the DSM, t he main classification of mental disorders used by psychiatrists in the United States and around the world. Various considerations of how to classify mental disorders are discussed.
Chapter 8 articles:
Gediman, H. K. (2005).
Premodern, modern, and postmodern perspectives on sex and gender mixes.
Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 53, 1059-1078.
Postmodern sensibilities, generally associated with relational psychoanalysis, are applicable also in traditional and contemporary Freudian psychoanalytic contexts. This article discusses the cultural changes brought about by the consciousness-raising of postmodern feminist and contemporary psychoanalytic thinking contribute significantly to evolutionary changes in the understanding of gender that are further internalized and represented intrapsychically.
Gold, J. M., & Rogers, J. D. (1995).
Intimacy and isolation: A validation study of Erikson's theory.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 35, 78-86.
This study sought to establish the concurrent validity of Hamachek's operationalization of Erikson's psychosocial stage of intimacy/isolation using 74 entry-level counseling students. The results revealed a significant positive relationship between the measures of psychosocial stage resolution toward intimacy and counselor trainee empathy.
Cook, J. L., & Jones, R. M. (2002).
Congruency of Identity Style in Married Couples.
Journal of Family Issues, 23, 912-926.
This study assessed the degree to which similarity in identity styles, according to Erikson and Berzonsky, contributes to marital satisfaction among 84 recently married couples. Analyses indicate that (a) men report greater marital satisfaction than women, (b) couples with similar identity styles report greater marital satisfaction than couples with dissimilar identity styles, and (c) women's reports of marital satisfaction are more influenced (than men) by similarity of identity style.
Wang, W., & Viney, L. L. (1996).
A cross-cultural comparison of Eriksonian psychosocial development: Chinese and Australian children.
School Psychology International, 17, 33-48.
This study is an exploratory cross-cultural comparison investigation of psychosocial development in school-age children in the People's Republic of China and in Australia. A general pattern of similarity between the two samples was evident. Methodological implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
Chapter 9 articles:
Hastings, B. M. (2007).
ROY G. BIV and the OCEAN: A heuristic metaphor for understanding the role of the five-factor model in personality research.
Theory & Psychology, 17, 87-99.
This paper presents a framework for understanding the `truth value' of the five-factor model by comparing the role of the five-factor model in personality theory with the role of the ROY G. BIV scheme for organizing the color spectrum. The result is a heuristic metaphor that maintains the integrity of the work of the big five theorists while also acknowledging the valid criticisms offered by thoughtful critics.
Olson, B. D., & Evans, D. L. (1999).
The role of the big five personality dimensions in the direction and affective consequences of everyday social comparisons.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1498-1508.
This study investigated the role of personality in everyday social comparisons. Results showed that people high in Neuroticism reported a greater increase in positive affect after comparing downward than people low on the dimension. People high in Extraversion and low in Agreeableness compared downward more. People high in Openness compared upward more and reported less of a decrease in positive affect after making these comparisons.
Cattell, R. B., & Cattell, H. E. (1995).
Personality structure and the New Fifth Edition of the 16PF.
Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 926-937.
The purposes of the present article were to describe briefly the development of the new fifth edition of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and to present a check of the factor structure of this new edition. Factor analyses of the new items and scales are described and show strong support for the validity of the factor structure of the fifth edition and for its continuity with earlier versions.
Chapter 10 articles:
Smillie, L. D.,
Dalgleish, L. I., & Jackson, C. J. (2007).
Distinguishing between learning and motivation in behavioral tests of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 476-489
According to Gray's (1973) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and a Behavioral Activation System (BAS) mediate effects of goal conflict and reward on behavior. This article examines if behavioral outputs of the BIS and BAS can be distinguished in terms of learning and motivation processes and if these can be operationalized using the Signal Detection Theory measures of response-sensitivity and response-bias.
Touretzky, D. S., & Saksida, L. M. (1997).
Operant Conditioning in Skinnerbots.
Adaptive Behavior, 5, 219-247.
Instrumental (or operant) conditioning allows an agent to adapt its actions to gain maximally from the environment while being rewarded only for correct performance. However, animals learn much more complicated behaviors through instrumental conditioning than robots presently acquire through reinforcement learning. This article describes a new computational model of the conditioning process that attempts to capture some of the aspects that are missing from simple reinforcement learning.
Langthorne, P., & McGill, P., & O’Reilly, M. (2007).
Incorporating "motivation" into the functional analysis of challenging behavior: On the interactive and integrative potential of the motivating operation.
Behavior Modification, 31, 466-487.
This article proposes that a functional analysis based on environmental (challenging environments) and biological (challenging needs) motivating operations provides a more parsimonious and empirically grounded account of challenging behavior than that proposed by sensitivity theory. The authors propose an integrated model of challenging behavior that remains compatible with the central tenets of functional analysis.
Chapter 11 articles:
Taylor, E. (2000).
"What is man, psychologist, that thou art so unmindful of him?": Henry A. Murray on the historical relation between classical personality theory and humanistic psychology.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 40, 29-42.
This article is a r eview of the humanistic movement in American psychology, focusing on recent historical reconstruction of the Old Saybrook Conference, held in November 1964. The article focuses on the historical reconstruction of the previously lost and unpublished keynote address delivered by Harvard psychologist Henry A. Murray, which he lays out the lines of a definitive historical relationship between classical personality theory and the new humanistic psychology and defines eight areas to be developed to solidify the movement at the leading edge of American psychology.
Cullen, D. (1997).
Maslow, monkeys and motivation theory.
Organization, 4, 355-373.
One of the most enduring influences in motivation theory is Maslow's needs hierarchy. The empirical basis for the needs hierarchy was Maslow's own studies of dominance in monkeys and humans. This article discusses recent primatological research that reveals serious flaws in Maslow's understanding of the nature of dominance in monkeys and in apes and the impact of these flaws on Maslow’s theory.
Chapter 12 articles:
Demanchick, S. P., & Kirschenbaum, H. (2008).
Carl Rogers and the CIA.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 48, 6-31.
Although Carl Rogers’s many professional activities and accomplishments are well known, the story of his association with the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology—a front organization for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)—is barely known and has never been explored in any depth. This article attempts to tell that story in the context of America during the 1950s, Rogers's academic career, and the mission of the CIA.
Dolliver, R. H. (1995).
Carl Rogers's personality theory and psychotherapy as a reflection of his life experience and personality.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 35, 111-128.
Carl Rogers shared with other theorists the tendency for his theories to reflect major portions of his life experience and personality. Many interrelationships are identified in this article, in sections on Rogers's (a) life experience, (b) personality, (c) personality theory, and (d) psychotherapy. At the most global level, Rogers's theoretical emphasis on becoming closely resembles an important aspect of how Rogers lived his own life.
Patterson, T. G., & Joseph, S. (2007).
Person-centered personality theory: Support from self-determination theory and positive psychology.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 47, 117-139.
The present article examines the person-centered personality theory of Carl Rogers in light of recent developments in theory and research within the emergent discipline of positive psychology. In particular, the theoretical observations and research findings from self-determination theory are reviewed.
Chapter 13 articles:
Thagard, P., & Nerb, J. (2002).
Emotional Gestalts: Appraisal, change, and the dynamics of affect.
Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 274-282.
This article interprets emotional change as a transition in a complex dynamical system. The authors argue that the appropriate kind of dynamical system is one that extends recent work on how neural networks can perform parallel constraint satisfaction.
Bargal, D. (2006).
Personal and intellectual influences leading to Lewin’s paradigm of action research: Towards the 60th anniversary of Lewin’s ‘Action research and minority problems’ (1946).
Action Research, 4, 367-388.
This article commemorates the 60th anniversary of his 1946 paper ‘Action research and minority problems’ and discusses eight principles of action research which were extracted from Lewin’s writings. The authors attempt to identify how the action research paradigm was actually derived from four aspects of Lewin’s personal and intellectual background.
Leyens , J., & Corneille, O. (1999).
Asch's social psychology: Not as social as you may think.
Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 345-357.
This article discusses 2 commonly held ideas about Solomon Asch's work in social psychology: (a) Asch was primarily interested in social phenomena in general and in group processes in particular, and (b) Asch was a forerunner of social cognition. The article also discusses how Asch’s attention at the individual level may have slowed down interest in social interactions or group processes.
Chapter 14 articles:
M. Brent Donnellan, M. B., Burt, S. A., Levendosky A. A., & Klump, K. L. (2008).
Genes, personality, and attachment in adults: A multivariate behavioral genetic analysis.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 3-16.
Behavioral genetic methods were used to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to (a) attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and (b) the overlap between these attachment dimensions and the Big Five personality traits. This article discusses the relationship of behavioral genetic methods and attachment theory and research.
Nicholson, N. (1997).
Evolutionary psychology: Toward a new view of human nature and organizational society.
Human Relations, 50, 1053-1078.
The paper argues that evolutionary psychology offers a radical and challenging new perspective on human nature and organizational society. Recurrent themes in human nature and their manifestations are summarized, including sex and personality differences, cognitive and affective biases, social orientations, and preferred modes of social exchange.
Iredale, R. (2000).
Eugenics and its relevance to contemporary health care.
Nursing Ethics, 7, 205-214.
Recently there has been a revival of interest in the theory and practice of eugenics by both academics and lay people. This article outlines the history of the eugenics movement, describes some eugenic practices, and explores why an appreciation of these historical debates is important for nurses.
Chapter 15 articles:
Ramon, S. Castillo, H., & Morant, N. (2001).
Experiencing Personality Disorder: a Participative Research.
International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 47, 1-15.
As personality disorders continue to be a subject of intense public and professional debate, this study has explored, by means of in-depth interviews, the views of fifty people diagnosed with personality disorders. The interviewers were also people with the same diagnoses, who have been trained specifically for this purpose. The findings highlight the mainly negative impact of the label of the disorder.
Evelyn Abramovich. (2006).
Application of CBT in an inpatient setting: Case illustration of an adult male with anxiety, depression, and Axis II symptoms.
Clinical Case Studies, 5, 305-330.
The article is a case illustration demonstrating the utility and scope of the cognitive-behavioral modality in treating coexisting Axis I and Axis II symptoms in an inpatient setting. In addition to treating the patient’s severe anxiety and depression, treatment was modified to account for the presence of the Axis II symptomatology.
Abramowitz, J. S., Brigidi, B. D., & Roche, K. R. (2001).
Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A review of the treatment literature.
Research on Social Work Practice, 11, 357-372.
Once considered a rare and largely untreatable condition, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is now known to be the fourth most common psychiatric disorder. Obsessive thoughts are intrusive, repugnant, and distress and anxiety provoking, whereas compulsive rituals often lead to significant impairment in many areas of life. In this article, the authors present an empirically based review of the treatment outcome literature on cognitive-behavioral therapy for OCD.
Chapter 16 articles:
Still, A., & Dryden, W. (1998).
The intellectual origins of Rational Psychotherapy.
History of the Human Sciences, 11, 63-86.
In this paper the authors attempt to understand the intellectual origins of Albert Ellis' Rational Psychotherapy (now known as Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy). In his therapy, Ellis drew on a number of popular intellectual movements, operationalism, General Semantics, the holistic theory of emotion, cognitive psychology, and psychoanalysis itself.
Gonzalez, J. E., Nelson, J. R., Gutkin, T. B., Saunders, A., Galloway, A., & Shwery, C. S. (2004).
Rational emotive therapy with children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.
Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12, 222-235.
This article systematically reviews the available research on rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) with children and adolescents. Meta-analytic procedures were applied to 19 studies that met inclusion criteria. Findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Chapter 17 articles:
Lee, Y. (2003).
Daoistic humanism in ancient China: Broadening personality and counseling theories in the 21st century.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 43, 64-85.
American psychology tends to focus on Western cultures and European/American-centric theories while neglecting Eastern or other cultures. The purpose of this article was to examine Laozi’s Daoism and make connections between early humanistic counseling and Chinese Daoism.
Reynolds, D. K. (1977).
Naikan Therapy-an experiential view.
International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 23, 252-263.
This article discusses Naikan therapy , which is a form of directed meditation practiced in Japan with reported positive effect on some neuroses, psychosomatic disorders and delinquency problems. It aims at reconstructing the client's view of his past in order to reshape his attitudes and behaviors in the present.
Kelly, B. D. (2008). Buddhist psychology, psychotherapy and the Brain: A critical introduction. Transcultural Psychiatry, 45, 5-30.
Buddhist psychology is increasingly informing psychotherapeutic practice in the western world. This article provides a general background to Buddhist tradition, outlines the central tenets of Buddhist psychology, provides an overview of research, outlines the relationships between Buddhist psychology and existing forms of psychotherapy, provides an overview of Buddhist approaches to specific psychiatric disorders, and discusses the emergence of Buddhist psychotherapy in western societies.