You are here

Methods of Randomization in Experimental Design

Methods of Randomization in Experimental Design

October 2012 | 208 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

In Methods of Randomization in Experimental Design, author Valentim R. Alferes presents the main procedures of random assignment and local control in between-subjects experimental designs and the counterbalancing schemes in within-subjects or cross-over experimental designs. Alferes uses a pedagogical strategy that allows the reader to implement all randomization methods by relying on the materials given in the appendices and using common features included in most word processor software.

A companion website at provides downloadable IBM SPSS and R versions of SCRAED, a package that performs simple and complex random assignment in experimental design, including the 18 randomization methods presented in Chapters 2 and 3.

Chapter 1. Randomized Experiments
1.1 Nature and Structure of Randomized Experiments

1.2 Experimental Design and Validity of Scientific Inferences

1.3 Randomized Experiments and Methods of Randomization

1.4 Terminological and Notational Issues

Chapter 2. Between-Subjects Designs Randomization
2.1 Randomization and Local Control

2.2 Completely Randomized Designs

2.3 Restrictedly Randomized Designs: Blocking

2.4 Restrictedly Randomized Designs: Stratifying

2.5 Sequential Assignment and Adaptive Randomization Methods

Chapter 3. Within-Subjects Designs Randomization
3.1 Basic Assumptions and Specific Threats to Validity

3.2 Treatment Design and Methods of Randomization

3.3 Random Counterbalancing

3.4 Positional Counterbalancing

3.5 Nonrestricted Sequential Counterbalancing

3.6 Restricted Sequential Counterbalancing

3.7 Factorial Designs

Chapter 4. Validity Issues, Analysis Guidelines, and Reporting Standards
4.1 Planning and Monitoring Randomized Experiments

4.2 Analyzing Randomized Experiments

4.3 Reporting Randomized Experiments

Appendix 1. Random Numbers
Appendix 2. Permutations, Arrangements, and Combinations
Appendix 3. Latin Squares

“This book does an excellent job covering the key issues.”

Richard Berk
University of Pennsylvania
Key features

Key Features

  • The author discusses randomization procedures in the context of Campbell's and Rubin's approaches to the validity of causal inferences.
  • Coverage of both between-subjects and within-subjects experimental designs emphasizes the interdependence between the error control design (random assignment and local control; counterbalancing) and the treatment design (structural features of design layouts).
  • In the companion website ( the reader can freely download, along with other supplementary materials, the IBM SPSS and R versions of SCRAED. This package performs simple and complex random assignment in experimental design, including the 18 randomization methods presented in Chapters 2 and 3.

Preview this book

Sample Materials & Chapters

CH 1

For instructors

Select a Purchasing Option

Electronic version
Prices from
*180 day rental

This title is also available on SAGE Research Methods, the ultimate digital methods library. If your library doesn’t have access, ask your librarian to start a trial.