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Culture's Consequences

Culture's Consequences
Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations

Second Edition

April 2001 | 616 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

"An important, sophisticated and complex monograph . . . Both the theoretical analysis and the empirical findings constitute major contributions to cross-cultural value analysis and the cross-cultural study of work motivations and organizational dynamics. This book is also a valuable resource for anyone interested in a historical or anthropological approach to cross-cultural comparisons."


The Second Edition of this classic work, first published in 1981 and an international best seller, explores the differences in thinking and social action that exist among members of more than 50 modern nations. Geert Hofstede argues that people carry "mental programs" which are developed in the family in early childhood and reinforced in schools and organizations, and that these programs contain components of national culture. They are expressed most clearly in the different values that predominate among people from different countries.

Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Culture's Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism versus collectivism; masculinity versus femininity; and long term versus short-term orientation.

Values and Culture
Data Collection, Treatment and Validation
Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance
Individualism and Collectivism
Masculinity and Femininity
Long versus Short-Term Orientation
Cultures in Organizations
Intercultural Encounters
Using Culture Dimension Scores in Theory and Research

In the field of humanitarian politics, law and economics it is important that the students is cognisant of the culture difference around the globe and the consequences of ignoring that when dealing with humanitarian crises.

Dr Ciaran McAleenan
School of the Built Environment (Jordanstown Campus), Ulster University
October 6, 2020

Essential for any Intercultural Communication course. Invaluable.

Ms Shauna Garry
School of Business & Humanities, Institute of Technology Blanchardstown
January 21, 2016

Our course is based around teaching critical views on Hofstede's work, so this new book is a crucial resource

Dr Diepiriye Kuku-Siemons
Northampton Business School, Northampton University
June 22, 2015

Geert Hofstede's book is one of the best social psychology books I have ever seen! It is complete, professional, very well documented and a sophisticated view on interdisciplinary and cross-cultural analysis... I will strongly recommend this book to my students, and I will certanly use it in my classroom! Thank you very much for this opportunity!

Professor Claudia-Neptina Manea
Psychology, "Ovidius" University of Constanta
February 7, 2013

This text offers a unique and detailed information about intercultural differences. It is good as a basic reading for all students studying management and dealing with intercultural communication within the international business arena.

Sam Nkala

Mr Sam Nkala
Health & Social Care (Cambridge), Anglia Ruskin University
November 24, 2012

as reference material , compulsory citation for final papers

Ms Mariana Sueldo
Management , ISM University of Management and Economics
March 24, 2012

Very detailed and concise descriptions of the empirical studies by Hofstede. However, lack of theoretical concepts underlying his assumptions.

Miss Maria Faust
Empirical Communication and Media Research, University of Leipzig
August 2, 2011

This has become a seminal study of cultural issues, albeit with an unavoidably Western perspective. Hofstede offers a very usable 4 part structure for students to assess and analyse culture, whatever their background, and his discussion of intercultural encounters provides some interesting talking points and areas for seminar discussions.

Mr Grenville Lannon
School of Computing and Informatics, Nottingham Trent University
July 12, 2011

This textbook offers unique and detailed information about intercultural differences. It is good as a basic reading for all students dealing with intercultural communication and international business.

Dr Andrea Haug
PR & Communication, European University
February 22, 2010

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