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Educational Assessment
Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability



December 2007 | 664 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Grounded in the real world of public schools and students, this engaging, insightful, and highly readable text introduces the inner-workings of K–12 educational assessment.

There has never been a time when it is more important for educators to have an understanding of testing and assessments. Accountability is now a fact of life for all public school educators, and testing is at the core of all educational assessment programs. It is no longer prudent or even possible for educators to ignore this national zeitgeist. 

Educational Assessment: Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability addresses all of the constructs central to understanding the design, construction and evaluation of educational measures. It goes on to provide students with insight into the link between today's high-stakes testing mandates and the traditions of the past 125 years of "scientific" measurement in the United States. It addresses the problem of understanding and correctly interpreting test scores on local, statewide, national, and international assessments. It also addresses how certain issues such as institutionalized cheating, test preparation, and individual differences among students and their families influence test score outcomes.

Key Features

  • Covers traditional topics in an approachable and understandable way: Reliability, validity, performance assessments, standardized achievement tests, and many more topics are included.
  • Analyzes and interprets "hot-button" issues of today's complex measurement concerns: The score-gap, high-stakes testing, grade retention, drop-out crises, "academic redshirting,", diversity, family influence, and educational technology, are examined.
  • Relates theory to practice: Each chapter includes relevant real-life examples and case studies to demonstrate how the technical-measurement principles impact those involved.
  • Addresses the needs of diverse students: Issues related to students with special needs and the testing of English Language Learners are discussed.

Ancillaries

  • Instructors' Resources on CD-Rom include PowerPoint slides, Web resources, suggested answers for each chapter's discussion questions, and a sample syllabus. The CD also includes Brownstone's Diploma Test Bank software so that instructors can create, customize, and deliver tests. Qualified instructors can contact Customer Care at 1-800-818-SAGE (7243) from 6am - 5pm PT to request a copy.
  • A web-based Student Study Site at www.sagepub.com/wrightstudy provides chapter objectives, flash cards, and practice tests.

Intended Audience: Educational Assessment: Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability has been written to meet the needs of students in graduate programs of special education, reading, school counseling, school social work, curriculum supervision, or administration. Providing grounding in all aspects of measurement, this book is perfect for undergraduate and graduate courses such as Educational Tests and Measurements, Assessment in Education, and Student Assessment.


 
Preface
 
SECTION ONE: EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT IN AMERICA: HISTORY, GOALS, AND APPLICATIONS
 
1. Issues and Measurement Practices in the Schools
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Accountability, Assessment, and Testing  
Why do we Test?  
Types and Varieties of Tests  
Assumptions Made by Test Developers  
Trends in Testing  
Law and Testing  
Case Law  
Educational Ethics and Testing  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
2. History of Testing in American Education
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Scientific Measurement and Racism  
The Next Generation  
Single Factor Models  
Multiple Factor Models  
Contemporary Public Schools  
Winds of Change  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
SECTION TWO: THE MEANING AND QUALITY OF TEST SCORES
 
3. The Measurement and Description of Variables
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Variables  
Central Tendency  
Normal Distribution  
Variation and Variance  
Standard Scores  
Variation  
Correlation  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
4. Reliability as a Measure of Test Quality
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Reliability  
Internal Consistency  
Gains and Losses  
Standard Error of Measurement  
Factors with an Impact on Reliability  
Reliability of Cut Scores  
Reliability of Performance Tasks and Criterion Tests  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
5. Validity as a Measure of Test Quality
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Validity: The Traditional Context of Validity  
Contemporary View  
Comparison Groups  
Test Bias and Fairness  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
SECTION THREE: TESTING OF STUDENTS BY CLASSROOM TEACHERS
 
6. Planning and Constructing Classroom Tests
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Testing and Teaching  
Formative Tests  
Summative Evaluations  
Testing Formats  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
7. Classroom Development and Use of Extended Answer Tests
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Homework  
Completion or Short Answer  
The Essay Test  
Bluffing  
Essay Test Format  
Essay Grading  
The SAT Essay Test  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
8. Item Selection and Analysis
Issues and Themes  
Classroom Testing  
A Priori Qualitative Assessment and Analysis of Tests  
Item Difficulty Index  
Distracter Analysis  
Item Analysis with Constructed or Supply Type Items  
Discrimination  
Computer Adaptive Testing  
Item Response Theory (IRT)  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
9. Performance Assessments
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Assessment and Instruction  
Performance Based Assessments  
Scoring  
Portfolios  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
10. Grades, Progress Reports, and Report Cards
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Background and History  
Purposes of Report Card Grades  
Student Grades  
Report Card Comments  
On-line Report Cards  
Report Card Grades for the Gifted  
Grades and Students with Special Needs  
The Case of Transfer Students  
Grade Point Average and Class Rank  
Teacher-Parent Conference  
Grade Inflation  
Promotion and Graduation  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
SECTION FOUR: TESTING FOR STUDENT LEARNING, TALENT, APTITUDE, AND SPECIAL NEEDS
 
11. Standardized Measures of Learning
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Explaining Test Scores to Parents  
Major Achievement Test Batteries  
State Mandated Assessments  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
12. Testing of Aptitude and Selection
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Aptitude  
Scholastic Aptitude and Intelligence  
Training of Test Administrators  
Tests of Intelligence Administered One-on-One  
Tests of Intelligence Administered to Groups  
Group Administered Aptitude Tests  
Assessment of Talented and Gifted Children  
Assessment of Aptitude for College Study  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
13. Identification of Learning Problems
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Incidence  
Informal Screening  
Instructional Support Team  
Referral, Assessment, and the IEP Committee  
Assessment Process  
Formal Assessments of Attention and Focus  
AD/HD Measurement Scales  
Assessments of Reading Problems  
Early Reading Tests  
Assessments of Language and Speech Problems  
Measures for the Identification of Problems Learning Mathematics  
Individualized Educational Plan  
Accommodations for Children with Disabilities  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
SECTION FIVE: NO CHILD, TEACHER, OR SCHOOL LEFT BEHIND
 
14. International, National, and Statewide Testing Programs
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
International Comparisons  
Nation’s Report Card  
School Assessments  
No Child Left Behind  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
15. Student, Family, and Teacher Factors in Test Scores
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Students  
Families  
Teachers  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
16. Test Preparation for Successful Schools
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Accountability Angst  
Legal and Ethical Requirements  
Marginal Ethics  
Successful Schools  
Classroom Instruction  
Architecture and School Design  
Administration  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
17. Accountability and Evaluation
Issues and Themes  
Learning Objectives  
Evaluation Overview  
Systematic Program Evaluation  
Steps in a Systematic Evaluation  
Value-added Evaluation  
Summary  
Discussion Questions  
 
References
 
Glossary
 
Index
 
About the Author

"For one of the only times in my career, and according to my master's students' positive reactions and statements, Wright's text encourages readers to think closely and with high interest about current assessment in education. The book gives educators strong justification and clarification for what they have been thinking about assessment in their classrooms"

Randy Nichols
Brescia University

"This is the best book I’ve found for the Test and Measurements course for school counselors."

Dr. Stacey Solomon
Caldwell College

This book was requested for one course but turned out to be perfect for a more advanced course on individual assessment. This is a great text for any k-16 evaluator.

Dr Paula Dawidowicz
School Of Education, Walden University
October 12, 2012

Very good book, could be supported with better teacher materials.

Dr M. Sencer Corlu
Department of Teaching, Learning and Culture, Texas A & M University - College State
September 6, 2012

This textbook corresponded best with the assessment knowledge and skills needed by K-12 teachers in a master's degree program.

Dr Robert Sweatman
Education Department, Illinois College
January 30, 2012

I like the focus on the whole school environment and how testing fits in historically. I like the clarity of explanations regarding test analysis and construction. I can build on this by adding specific information about music assessments.

Dr Keitha Hamann
School Of Music, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities
September 7, 2011

Covered the material at an appropriated level for first year grad students.

Dr Anita Welch
School Of Education, North Dakota State University
February 22, 2010
Key features
 
  • Designed specifically to meet the needs of advanced certification and graduate students, including those in school administration, reading specialist, and school psychology and counseling programs.
  • Addresses contemporary concerns and trends (including high stakes testing, mandated tests, No Child Left Behind, national testing programs, international achievement comparisons, achievement gap, etc.).
  • Throughout the chapters, sections titled "CASE in POINT" provide real life examples in context.
  • The book provides a powerful research tool in the form of an up-to-date reference section that provides 858 references and 118 URLs.
  • All chapters contain four special sections that will support student learning: Issues and Themes, Learning Objectives, Summary, and Discussion Questions.

For instructors

Review and Desk copies for this title are available digitally via VitalSource.

Request e-review copy

If you require a print review copy, please call: (800) 818-7243 ext. 6140 or email textsales@sagepub.com.

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Hardcover
ISBN: 9781412949170
$136.00

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