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Introduction to Corrections - Interactive eBook

Introduction to Corrections - Interactive eBook

Third Edition

January 2019 | SAGE Publications, Inc

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Chapter 1: Early History of Punishment and the Development of Prisons in the United States
Defining Corrections: A Variety of Possibilities

The Notion of Punishment and Corrections Throughout History

The Enlightenment and Correctional Reform

Punishment During Early American History: 1700s–1800s

The Age of the Reformatory in America

Prisons in America: 1900s to the End of World War II

Modern Day Systems: Federal and State Inmate Characteristics

Chapter 2: Ideological and Theoretical Underpinnings to Sentencing and Correctional Policy

Philosophical Underpinnings

Types of Sanctions

Sentencing Models

Criminological Theories and Corrections

Chapter 3: Correctional Law and Legal Liabilities

The Hands-Off Doctrine

The Emergence of Inmate Rights

Corrections and the Constitution

A Restrained Hands-On Perspective and Court Deference to Prisons

State and Federal Legal Liabilities

Compliance With Judicial Orders

Chapter 4: Jail and Detention Facilities

Jails in the Past

The Modern Jail

Jails as Short-Term Institutions

Jails as Long-Term Facilities

Health Care in Jails

Jail Training Standards

Specialized Types of Jail Sentences

Special Issues in Jails

Chapter 5: Probation

A Brief History of Probation

Contemporary Probation: When the Jail Is Full

Characteristics of Probationers

The Administration of Probation

Probation Officers

Probation Revocation

Chapter 6: Intermediate Sanctions

Types of Intermediate Sanctions

Methods of Ensuring Compliance

Intermediate Sanctions in Different States

Chapter 7: Facility Design to Meet Security and Programming Needs

Prison Facility Designs Throughout History

The Rise of the Supermax

Accommodations for Inmates With Disabilities

Innovative Security Designs

Internal Security

Auxiliary Services and Physical Security

Technology Systems in Prisons

Chapter 8: Classification and Custody Levels

History of Classification

Rationale for Classification

The Goals of Classification Systems

Elements of All Classification Systems

Special Housing Assignments

Chapter 9: Prison Subculture and Prison Gang Influence

Theories of Prison Subculture

The Inmate Subculture of Modern Times

The Impact of the Inmate Subculture on Corrections Staff

Scenario 1

Scenario 2


The Guard Subculture

The Impact of Gangs Upon Prison Subculture

Major Prison Gangs in the United States

Chapter 10: Immigration Detention Centers Deciding to Stay or Go

A History of Competing & Contradictory Objectives to Immigration Control

Current Organization & Implementation of Immigration Control

Special Insert 10.1: The 38 National Detention Standards

The Mission of the ERO

The Structure of the ERO and Detention Facilities

The ERO Classification System

Jails and Immigration Detention

Budgeting for ICE: Notable Concerns

Lobbying and Big Money for Private Prison Companies

Civil Rights Violations in Immigration Detention Facilities

Detention Facility Housing Conditions

Failure to Uphold Legal Requirements

Chapter 11: Female Offenders in Correctional Systems

Female Offenders Behind Bars: A Detailed Look at Percentages and Rates

Rates of Women Held in State Prisons, in Local Jails, or on Community Supervision

History of Women Behind Bars

Women’s Reformatories in the Early Twentieth Century: A Feminist Perspective

Issues Related to the Modern-Day Female Offender Population

Considerations for Female Offenders

Conditions of Care for Female Offenders

Female Offenders and Treatment Implications

Chapter 12: Specialized Inmate Populations

Administrative Considerations

Prison Subculture and Special Needs Offenders

Mentally Ill Offenders

Sex Offenders

HIV/AIDS-Related Offenders

Elderly Offenders

Chapter 13: Juvenile Correctional Systems

History of Juvenile Corrections

Legal Precepts and Orientation of the Juvenile Justice System

Screening and Classification of Juvenile Offenders

Commonality of Juvenile as Victim of Prior Abuse

Female Juveniles in Custody

Juvenile Gang Members

Detention Versus Incarceration

Incarceration of Juveniles

Chapter 14: Correctional Administration

Federal Bureau of Prisons Administration

Regional Offices and Jurisdictions

Correctional System Administration

Levels of Prison Management

Styles of Management

Management Versus Leadership

Women in Correctional Management

The Corrections Workforce

Emergency Management

Chapter 15: Prison Programming

Medical Care

Food Service

Educational Programs

Prison Work Programs

Drug Treatment Programs

Recreational Programs

Religious Programs

Chapter 16: Parole and Reintegration

Parole and Parolee Characteristics

The Beginning History of Parole

Parole at the State Level

Parole as the Correctional Release Valve for Prisons

The Role of Institutional Parole Officers

Common Conditions of Parole

Reentry Initiatives

The Use of Reentry Councils

Violations of Parole, Parole Warrants, and Parole Revocation Proceedings

Chapter 17: The Death Penalty

Constitutionality of the Death Penalty

Death Row Statistics

Methods of Execution

Arguments For and Against the Death Penalty

Brutalization Hypothesis

Correctional Aspects of the Death Penalty

Chapter 18: Program Evaluation, Evidence-Based Practices, and Future Trends in Corrections

Evaluation Research

Evidence-Based Practice

The Future of Corrections

Key features


  • A new chapter on immigration detention centers (Chapter 10) explores a timely topic and illuminates the connection between corrections and immigration detention.
  • Up-to-date statistics have been added to the tables and figures to provide a timely snapshot of the current status of corrections.
  • New topics including medical care in jails, probation, compassionate prison design, female drug offenders, the effects of realignment in California, the treatment of HIV/AIDS in prisons, the use of re-entry councils, and updated court decisions and controversies around the death penalty have been added.
  • New feature boxes covering topics on hunger strikes in Israeli prisons, the classification process for violent offenders, white supremacist prison gang members, prison riots in Brazil, and MS-13 gang activity in prisons have been added to select chapters.
  • Coverage of new technology in corrections, including RFID in correctional settings, the use of drones in prison security, and easy-to-smuggle contraband is now included.


  • Balanced coverage of research and practice offers students a comprehensive view of the field and evidence-based practices as they prepare for a career in corrections and/or the criminal justice system.
  • Assessment and classification from both institutional and community corrections perspectives offer students a well-rounded understanding of the field of corrections. 
  • Exclusive Prison Tour and Inmate videos provide a view into the daily operations of the correctional facilities at Angola State Penitentiary and Richwood Correctional Center with commentary from correctional staff.
  • Engaging chapter-opening vignettes highlight important issues in corrections and allow students to understand the challenges corrections practitioners face each day.
  • Various issues associated with specialized offender typologies help students understand a variety of offenders they will encounter in the field, such as female offenders, geriatric offenders, mentally ill offenders, gang offenders, and others.
  • Technology and Equipment boxes offer solid coverage of modern technology and equipment used in corrections and expose students to the benefits of technology, such as the use of electronic surveillance systems, locking systems, and other advanced equipment.
  • What Would You Do? assignments at the close of each chapter provide students with an opportunity to engage critically with the material.
  • Corrections and the Law sections highlight legal considerations in each chapter and demonstrate how the field of corrections is continuously changing.
  • Cross-National Perspectives boxed features help students develop a global mindset using issues as they are addressed in nations around the world.
  • Applied Theory inserts bridge the connection between criminological theory and the actual daily operations of correctional facilities, highlight issues specific to the chapter from a theoretical perspective.
  • Focus Topic boxes delve into key topics in corrections by adding depth and detail, ensuring that the material reinforces the learning objectives for each chapter.

For instructors

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ISBN: 9781544365206