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Introduction to Criminal Justice - Vantage Digital Option
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Introduction to Criminal Justice - Vantage Digital Option
Practice and Process

Third Edition

October 2019 | SAGE Publications, Inc

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Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process – Vantage Digital Option, Third Edition delivers trusted SAGE textbook content on SAGE Vantage, an intuitive digital platform that offers auto-graded assignments and interactive multimedia tools, all carefully designed to ignite student engagement and drive critical thinking. Built with you and your students in mind, it offers easy course set-up and enables students to better prepare for class. With evidence-based instructional design at the core, SAGE Vantage creates more time for engaged learning and empowered teaching, keeping the classroom where it belongs—in your hands.

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About Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process, Third Edition

Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process shows students how to think practically about the criminal justice system by offering them a proven, problem-based approach to learning.  Bestselling authors Kenneth J. Peak and Tamara D. Madensen draw on their many years of combined practitioner and academic experience to explain the importance of criminal justice and show how key trends, emerging issues, historical background, and practical lessons can be applied in the field.

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
Part I. Criminal Justice as a System: The Basics
 
1. FUNDAMENTALS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE: ESSENTIAL THEMES AND PRACTICES
Introduction

 
Foundations of Criminal Justice: Legal and Historical Bases

 
Crime Control and Due Process: Do Ends Justify Means?

 
Discretion: Making and Applying the Law

 
The Criminal Justice Process: An Overview of Flow and Functions

 
The Wedding Cake Model of Criminal Justice

 
Ethics Throughout the Criminal Justice System

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
2. FOUNDATIONS OF LAW AND CRIME: NATURE, ELEMENTS, AND DEFENSES
Introduction

 
Common Law and Its Progeny

 
Modern-Day Sources and Hierarchy of Law

 
Criminal and Civil Law

 
Substantive and Procedural Law

 
Essential Elements: Mens Rea and Actus Reus

 
Felonies and Misdemeanors

 
Offense Definitions and Categories

 
Defenses

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
3. THEORIES OF CRIME AND MEASURING VICTIMIZATION
Introduction

 
Classical and Positivist Theories

 
Biological, Trait, and Developmental Theories

 
Social Structure Theories

 
Social Process Theories

 
Social Conflict Theories

 
Feminist Theories

 
Environmental Criminology Theories

 
In Their Own Words: Offenders Speak

 
Measuring Crime and Victimization

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
4. ETHICAL ESSENTIALS: “DOING RIGHT WHEN NO ONE IS WATCHING”
Introduction

 
Good Examples of Bad Examples

 
Philosophical Foundations

 
Ethics in Policing

 
Ethics in the Courts

 
Ethical Conduct of Federal Employees

 
Ethics in Corrections

 
The Ethical Decision-Making Process

 
Ethics Tests for the Criminal Justice Student

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
Part II. The Police
 
5. POLICE ORGANIZATION: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS
Introduction

 
English and Colonial Roots: An Overview

 
Policing Comes to the United States

 
Federal Law Enforcement

 
State Agencies

 
Local Agencies: Municipal Police Departments and Sheriff’s Offices

 
Interested in a Career? Some General Considerations

 
On Guard: The Private Police

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
6. POLICE AT WORK: PATROLLING AND INVESTIGATING
Introduction

 
From Citizen to Patrol Officer

 
Having the “Right Stuff”: A Working Personality

 
Defining the Role

 
Stressors in Police Work

 
Police Discretion

 
Community Policing and Problem Solving

 
The Work of Forensics and Detectives

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
7. POLICING METHODS AND CHALLENGES: ISSUES OF FORCE, LIABILITY, AND TECHNOLOGIES
Introduction

 
Use of Force: A Sacred Trust

 
When Failing the Public Trust: Civil Liability

 
Selected Technologies: Uses and Concerns

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
8. EXPOUNDING THE CONSTITUTION: LAWS OF ARREST, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE
Introduction

 
The Fourth Amendment

 
The Fifth Amendment

 
The Sixth Amendment

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
Part III. The Courts
 
9. COURT ORGANIZATION: STRUCTURE, FUNCTIONS, AND THE TRIAL PROCESS
Introduction

 
American Courts: A Dual Court System

 
State Courts

 
Federal Courts

 
Making Preparations: Pretrial Processes

 
The Trial Process

 
Technologies in the Court

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
10. THE BENCH AND THE BAR: THOSE WHO JUDGE, PROSECUTE, AND DEFEND
Introduction

 
Those Who Would Be Judges: Selection Methods and Issues

 
Judges’ Benefits, Training, and Challenges

 
The Art of Judging, Courtroom Civility, and Judicial Misconduct

 
The Attorneys

 
Courtroom Work Group

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
11. COURT METHODS AND CHALLENGES: SENTENCING AND PUNISHMENT
Introduction

 
Purposes of Punishment

 
Types of Sentences to Be Served

 
Sentencing Guidelines

 
Victim Impact Statements

 
Capital Punishment

 
Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances

 
Criminal Appeals

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
Part IV. Corrections
 
12. PRISONS AND JAILS: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Introduction

 
Correctional Facilities as Organizations

 
State Prisons as Organizations

 
Federal Prisons

 
Supermax Prisons

 
Private Prisons

 
Jails as Organizations

 
Technologies in Correctional Facilities: The Good and the Bad

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
13. THE INMATES’ WORLD: THE “KEEPERS” AND THE “KEPT”
Introduction

 
The Nature of Incarceration

 
Prison as Work

 
Jail Personnel

 
Issues of Prison Governance

 
Preparation for Reentry and Aftercare

 
Prisoners’ Constitutional Rights

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
14. CORRECTIONS IN THE COMMUNITY: PROBATION, PAROLE, AND OTHER ALTERNATIVES TO INCARCERATION
Introduction

 
Why Alternatives to Incarceration?

 
Origins of Probation and Parole

 
Probation and Parole Today

 
Do Probation and Parole Work?

 
Functions of Probation and Parole Officers

 
Other Alternatives: Intermediate Sanctions

 
Confronting Recidivists: The Risk-Needs- Responsivity (RNR) Model

 
Restorative Justice

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
Part V. Spanning the System: Methods and Issues
 
15. JUVENILE JUSTICE: PHILOSOPHY, LAW, AND PRACTICES
Introduction

 
History of Juvenile Justice

 
Unique Philosophy, Principles, and Goals

 
Juvenile Offending Today

 
Youth Gangs: An Overview

 
Significant Court Decisions

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
16. ON THE CRIME POLICY AND PREVENTION AGENDA: TERRORISM, THE MENTALLY ILL IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM, AND THE THREAT OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION
Introduction

 
Terrorism

 
The “New Asylums”: The Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System

 
Immigration and Crime

 
Immigration and the Role of Law Enforcement Agencies

 
IN A NUTSHELL

 
KEY TERMS & CONCEPTS

 
REVIEW QUESTIONS

 
LEARN BY DOING

 
 
Appendix: Constitution of the United States
 
Answers
 
Glossary
 
Notes
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

Instructors: The following online resources are included FREE with this text. For a brief demo, contact your sales representative today.

edge.sagepub.com/rennison3e

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*For use in: Blackboard, Canvas, Brightspace by Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle

 

SAGE Coursepacks includes

  • Our content delivered directly into your LMS
  • Intuitive, simple format that makes it easy to integrate the material into your course with minimal effort
  • Assessment tools that foster review, practice, and critical thinking, and offer a more complete way to measure student engagement, including
    • Diagnostic chapter pre tests and post tests that identify opportunities for improvement, track student progress, and ensure mastery of key learning objectives
    • Test banks built on Bloom’s Taxonomy that provide a diverse range of test items with ExamView test generation
    • Activity and quiz options that allow you to choose only the assignments and tests you want
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  • Chapter-specific discussion questions to help launch engaging classroom interaction while reinforcing important content
  • Assignable SAGE Premium Video that is tied to learning objectives and produced exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life and appeal to different learning styles, featuring
    • Corresponding multimedia assessment options that automatically feed to your gradeboo
    • Comprehensive, downloadable, easy-to-use Media Guide in the Coursepack for every video resource, lists the chapter to which the video content is tied, matches learning objectives and course outcomes, and provides a helpful description of the video content as well as assessment questions
    • Career insights from professionals in the field expose students to the opportunities and challenges of potential careers in criminal justice.
    • Engaging interviews with the individuals profiled in the text’s case studies bring concepts to life.
    • Author discussions feature Callie Marie Rennison and Mary Dodge discussing key concepts in the text.
    • Criminal Justice news clips bring extra coverage of current events into the book, connecting multiple brief news clips to core chapter content.
    • Criminal Justice in Practice: Decision Making Scenarios encourage a deeper understanding of key concepts by placing students in the role of criminal justice professionals in real-life situations.
  • EXCLUSIVE, influential SAGE journal articles, built into course materials and assessment tools, that tie important research and scholarship to chapter concepts to strengthen learning
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer flexibility when creating multimedia lectures so you don’t have to start from scratch but can customize to your exact needs
  • Lecture notes that summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help you with preparation for lectures and class discussions
  • All tables and figures from the textbook
Key features

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  • Honest value gives students access to quality content and learning tools at a price they will appreciate.

NEW AND KEY FEATURES OF INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE: PRACTICE AND PROCESS, THIRD EDITION

 

  • New video interviews with criminal justice professionals offer students career advice, provide insights into a variety of career paths, and discuss challenges and misconceptions of each profession.
  • An emphasis on constitutional policing, legitimacy, and procedural justice stresses the importance for police to develop a “guardian” mindset over a “soldier” mindset.
  • New discussions of contemporary criminological theories—such as social structure theories, social process theories, social conflict theories, feminist theories, and environmental criminology theories—provide students with a concise explanation on why people commit crimes and how to prevent them in the modern world.
  • An in-depth view of three particularly challenging problems and policy issues—terrorism, the mentally ill population, and illegal immigration—demonstrate how today’s society and the criminal justice system are affected by these issues and what can be done to address the problems.
  • New examples and case studies of ethical dilemmas illustrate today's climate of distrust, dissension, and dysfunction to encourage students to think critically about what is considered “ethical”.  
  • Practitioner’s Perspectives allow students to hear from police, court, and corrections professionals about the nature of their work, academic preparation, and the decisions they make every day.
  • Investigating Further feature boxes highlight high-interest topics, such as the Boston Marathon Bomber, social media and crime, and the use of drones.
  • Going Global boxes offer comparative content to show students how similar criminal justice matters have been handled in other countries.
  • Learn by Doing exercises at the ends of chapters give students an opportunity to apply what they learn to real-life scenarios.
  • An entire chapter dedicated to current policy issues includes up-to-date coverage of terrorism, criminal justice and mentally ill offenders, and changing drug laws.
  • Chapter-opening self-assessments, case studies, Learning Objectives, and Chapter Introductions help orient students to the material ahead.
  • Chapter Summaries, Key Terms, and Review Questions enhance student mastery and help them prepare for exams.
  • You Be the... boxes offer a broader range of perspectives for students to take on, such as those of sentencing commissioners and policy makers.

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