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Introduction to Criminal Justice

Introduction to Criminal Justice
Practice and Process

Fourth Edition
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January 2020 | 512 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

The best-selling Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process uses a practical, applied approach to teach students the foundations of the U.S. criminal justice system. Award-winning authors Kenneth J. Peak and Tamara D. Madensen-Herold draw on their many years of combined practitioner and academic experience to explain the importance of criminal justice and show how key trends, emerging issues, and practical lessons can be applied in the field. The Fourth Edition keeps students up to date with new content on recent cases, cybercrime, policing strategies, drug abuse, human trafficking, terrorism, immigration, and much more.

INSTRUCTORS: Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process is accompanied by a complete teaching and learning package! Contact your rep to request a demo.

  • SAGE Vantage Digital Option
    SAGE Vantage is an intuitive digital platform that delivers this text’s content in a learning experience carefully designed to ignite student engagement and drive critical thinking. Built with you and your students in mind, it offers easy course set-up and enables students to better prepare for class. Contact your rep to learn more.

  • SAGE Premium Video
    SAGE Premium Video includes original Student on the Street videos, Criminal Justice in Practice videos, and career videos that boost comprehension and bolster analysis. Watch a sample

  • SAGE Coursepacks 
    Intuitive and simple to use, SAGE Coursepacks makes it easy to import our quality instructor and student resource content into your school’s learning management system (LMS). Learn more

  • SAGE Edge
    This companion website offers students a robust online environment with an impressive array of teaching and learning resources. Learn more.

Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: Essential Themes and Practices

Foundations of Criminal Justice: Legal and Historical Bases

Crime Control and Due Process: Do Ends Justify Means?

Discretion: Making and Applying the Law

The Criminal Justice Process: An Overview of Flow and Functions

The Wedding Cake Model of Criminal Justice

Ethics Throughout the Criminal Justice System

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 2: Foundations of Law and Crime: Nature, Elements, and Measurement

Common Law and Its Progeny

Modern-Day Sources and Hierarchy of Law

Criminal and Civil Law

Substantive and Procedural Law

Essential Elements: Mens Rea and Actus Reus

Felonies and Misdemeanors

Offense Definitions and Categories

Measuring Crime and Victimization

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 3: Theories of Criminality and Crime

Classical and Positivist Theories

Biological, Trait, and Developmental Theories

Social Structure Theories

Social Process Theories

Social Conflict Theories

Feminist Theories

Environmental Criminology Theories

In Their Own Words: Offenders Speak

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 4: Ethical Essentials: Doing Right When No One Is Watching

Good Examples of Bad Examples

Philosophical Foundations

Ethics in Policing

Ethics in the Courts

Ethical Conduct of Federal Employees

Ethics in Corrections

Ethics Tests for the Criminal Justice Student

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 5: Police Organization: Structure and Functions

English and Colonial Roots: An Overview

Policing Comes to the United States

Federal Law Enforcement

State Agencies

Local Agencies: Municipal Police Departments and Sheriff’s Offices

Interested in a Career? Some General Considerations

On Guard: The Private Police

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 6: Police at Work: Patrolling and Investigating

From Citizen to Patrol Officer

Having the “Right Stuff”: Defining the Role

Stressors in Police Work

Use of Discretion

Community Policing and Problem Solving

The Work of Forensics and Detectives

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 7: Policing Methods and Challenges: Issues of Force, Liability, and Technologies

Use of Force: A Sacred Trust

When Failing the Public Trust: Civil Liability

Selected Technologies: Uses and Concerns

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 8: Expounding the Constitution: Laws of Arrest, Search, and Seizure

The Fourth Amendment

The Fifth Amendment

The Sixth Amendment

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 9: Court Organization: Structure, Functions, and the Trial Process

American Courts: A Dual Court System

State Courts

Federal Courts

Making Preparations: Pretrial Processes

The Trial Process

Technologies in the Courts

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 10: The Bench and the Bar: Those Who Judge, Prosecute, and Defend

Those Who Would Be Judges: Selection Methods and Issues

Judges’ Benefits, Training, and Challenges

The Art of Judging, Courtroom Civility, and Judicial Misconduct

The Attorneys

Courtroom Work Group


In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 11: Court Methods and Challenges: Sentencing and Punishment

Purposes of Punishment

Types of Sentences to Be Served

Sentencing Guidelines

Victim Impact Statements

Capital Punishment

Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances

Criminal Appeals

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 12: Prisons and Jails: Structure and Function

Correctional Facilities as Organizations

State Prisons as Organizations

Federal Prisons

Supermax Prisons

Private Prisons

Jails as Organizations

Technologies in Correctional Facilities: Going After Contraband

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 13: The Inmates’ World: The “Keepers” and the “Kept”

The Nature of Incarceration

Prison and Jail as Work

Issues of Prison Governance

Prisoners’ Constitutional Rights

Preparation for Reentry and Aftercare

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 14: Corrections in the Community: Probation, Parole, and Other Alternatives to Incarceration

Why Alternatives to Incarceration?

Origins of Probation and Parole

Probation and Parole Today

Do Probation and Parole Work?

Functions of Probation and Parole Officers

Other Alternatives: Intermediate Sanctions

Confronting Recidivists: The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) Model

Restorative Justice

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 15: Juvenile Justice: Philosophy, Law, and Practices

History of Juvenile Justice

Unique Philosophy, Principles, and Goals

Juvenile Offending Today: Extent and Possible Causes

Youth Gangs: An Overview

Aftercare and Reentry

Significant Court Decisions

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing

Chapter 16: On the Crime Policy and Prevention Agenda: Drug Abuse, Sex Trafficking, Terrorism, and Immigration

America’s Drug Epidemic

Sex Trafficking

Policing Terrorism

Immigration: Who Should be Coming to America?

In a Nutshell

Key Terms & Concepts

Review Questions

Learn by Doing



Student Study Site

SAGE EDGE FOR STUDENTS enhances learning, it’s easy to use, and offers:

  • Mobile-friendly flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, and make it easy to maximize your study time, anywhere, anytime
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes that allow you to assess how much you’ve learned and where you need to focus your attention
  • Learning objectives that reinforce the most important material
  • Video resources that bring concepts to life, are tied to learning objectives, and make learning easier.
Instructor Resource Sit

SAGE COURSEPACKS FOR INSTRUCTORS makes it easy to import our quality content into your school’s learning management system (LMS)*. Intuitive and simple to use, it allows you to



Say NO to…

·         required access codes

·         learning a new system



Say YES to…

·         using only the content you want and need

·         high-quality assessment and multimedia exercises



*For use in: Blackboard, Canvas, Brightspace by Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle


Don’t use an LMS platform? No problem, you can still access many of the online resources for your text via SAGE Edge.


SAGE Coursepacks includes:

·         Our content delivered directly into your LMS

·         Intuitive, simple format that makes it easy to integrate the material into your course with minimal effort

  • Assignable SAGE Premium Video (available via Vantage) that is tied to learning objectives, and curated and produced exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life and appeal to diverse learner, featuring:

o    Student on the Street videos that breathe life into concepts with stories drawn from common student misconceptions of criminal justice

    • Video interviews with criminal justice professionals offer students career advice, provide insights into a variety of career paths, and discuss challenges and misconceptions of each profession.
    • Corresponding multimedia assessment options that automatically feed to your gradebook

·         Assessment tools that foster review, practice, and critical thinking, and offer a more complete way to measure student engagement, including:

o    Diagnostic chapter quizzes that identify opportunities for improvement, track student progress, and ensure mastery of key learning objectives

o    Test banks built on Bloom’s Taxonomy that provide a diverse range of test items with ExamView test generation

o    Activity and quiz options that allow you to choose only the assignments and tests you want

o    Instructions on how to use and integrate the comprehensive assessments and resources provided

·         Chapter-specific discussion questions to help launch engaging classroom interaction while reinforcing important content

·         Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer flexibility when creating multimedia lectures so you don’t have to start from scratch but you can customize to your exact needs

·         Sample course syllabi with suggested models for structuring your course that give you options to customize your course in a way that is perfect for you

·         Lecture notes that summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help you with preparation for lectures and class discussions

·         All tables and figures from the textbook

Key features


  • New chapter-opening vignettes spark student interest in forthcoming chapter content.
  • New Investigating Further boxes explore current issues in criminal justice and help students dig deeper into the material.
  • New You Be the… boxes offer a broad range of perspectives and roles for students to take on, such as those of sentencing commissioners and policy makers.
  • New Going Global boxes give glimpses into comparative criminal justice systems, law, and practices in selected foreign venues.
  • New and updated case studies reinforce the applied/practical "learn by doing" focus of the book and place students at the cutting edge of criminal justice.
  • SAGE course outcomes that are crafted with specific goals in mind and vetted by advisors in the field clearly define and benchmark the knowledge and skills students are expected to achieve upon course completion.


  • Chapter-opening learning objectives identify what students should be able to accomplish as a result of reading the chapter.
  • Assessment questions give students the opportunity to test their knowledge of forthcoming material before reading the chapter; a separate answer key allows students to check their answers after reading the chapter.
  • Investigating Further boxes highlight high-interest topics, such as social media and crime, the use of drones, and more.
  • Practitioner’s Perspective boxes present profiles of criminal justice professionals and allow students to hear about the nature of their work, academic preparation, and the decisions they make.
  • Going Global boxes offer comparative content to show students how similar criminal justice matters have been handled in other countries.
  • Chapter-ending In a Nutshell summaries and key terms and concepts allow students to review and reinforce the chapter’s main takeaways.
  • Chapter-ending review questions and Learn by Doing activities engage students with the material to maximize retention.

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ISBN: 9781544372945

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