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Introduction to Criminology
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Introduction to Criminology
A Text/Reader

Fourth Edition


January 2018 | 672 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

While using a novel approach to the study of criminal behavior, the book is accessible, logically structured, and thought-provoking. It includes a good selection of contemporary writings that would help students better understand how theories can be applied to explain variations in crime and how research findings may be used to guide social policies.”
—Viviana Andreescu, University of Louisville 

Introduction to Criminology: A Text/Reader, Fourth Edition offers students a unique, comprehensive, interdisciplinary introduction to the study of criminology. Anthony Walsh and Craig Hemmens provide the best of both worlds—a brief, authored text with carefully selected and edited accompanying readings. Covering both classic and contemporary research in criminology, each reading shows students how to use current research to better understand criminal behavior. Students also gain an interdisciplinary perspective of crime and criminality by exploring the latest theories, concepts, and research from sociology, psychology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and the neurosciences.

New to the Fourth Edition: 

  • Over 50% new journal articles provide insight into the latest findings in criminology on topics such as human trafficking, rural crime, recidivism, the abuse of technology in domestic violence and stalking, cyber attacks, and drug use. 
  • New Theory in Action case studies present compelling examples of critical issues such as emotion and rationality, oppositional culture, self-control, genetics and neuroscience, and terrorism. 
  • A stronger focus on connecting theory to criminal acts enables students to see how the substantive sections (violent crime, property crime, serial killing, white-collar crime, and others) fit in with the section on theory. 
  • Statistics, graphs, and tables have all been updated to demonstrate the most recent trends in criminology. 

The free, open-access Student Study site at study.sagepub.com/walsh4e features eFlashcards, web quizzes, video resources, SAGE journal articles, and more. 

Instructors, sign in at study.sagepub.com/walsh4e for additional resources! 

 
Foreword
 
Preface
 
SECTION I: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF CRIME AND CRIMINOLOGY
What Is Criminology?  
What Is Crime?  
Crime as a Moving Target  
Crime as a Subcategory of Social Harms  
Beyond Social Construction: The Stationary Core Crimes  
Criminality  
A Short History of Criminology  
The Role of Theory in Criminology  
A Brief Word About the Section Readings  
Reading 1: The Use and Usefulness of Criminology, 1751–2005: Enlightened Justice and Its Failures Lawrence W. Sherman  
Reading 2: What Biosocial Criminology Offers Criminology John Paul Wright and Danielle Boisvert  
 
SECTION II: MEASURING CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
Categorizing and Measuring Crime and Criminal Behavior  
The Uniform Crime Reports: Counting Crime Officially  
NIBRS: The “New and Improved” UCR  
Crime Victimization Survey Data and Their Inherent Problems  
Areas of Agreement Between the UCR and NCVS  
Self-Reported Crime Surveys and Their Inherent Problems  
The Dark Figure of Crime  
What Can We Conclude About the Three Main Measures of Crime in America?  
The FBI’s Ten Most Wanted  
Reading 3: Gender Gap Trends for Violent Crimes, 1980 to 2003: A UCR-NCVS Comparison Darrell Steffensmeier, Hua Zhong, Jeff Ackerman, Jennifer Schwartz, and Suzanne Agha  
Reading 4: Race and the Probability of Arrest Stewart J. D’Alessio and Lisa Stolzenberg  
 
SECTION III: VICTIMOLOGY: EXPLORING THE EXPERIENCE OF VICTIMIZATION
The Emergence of Victimology  
Who Gets Victimized?  
Victimization in the Workplace and School  
Child Sexual Assault: Who Gets Victimized?  
Human Trafficking  
Victimization Theories  
Is Victimology “Blaming the Victim”?  
The Consequences of Victimization  
Victimization and the Criminal Justice System  
Reading 5: Understanding Human Trafficking in the United States T.K. Logan, Robert Walker, and Gretchen Hunt  
Reading 6: MAOA, Drug Selling, and Violent Victimization: Evidence of a Gene x Environment Interaction Stephen J. Watts, Melissa J. Tetzlaff-Bemiller, and James C. McCutcheon  
 
SECTION IV: THE EARLY SCHOOLS OF CRIMINOLOGY AND MODERN COUNTERPARTS
Preclassical Notions of Crime and Criminals  
The Classical School  
The Rise of Positivism  
Neoclassicism: The Return of Choice and Deterrence  
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Classical and Neoclassical Theories  
Is the United States Hard or Soft on Crime?  
Reading 7: An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation: Of the Principle of Utility Jeremy Bentham  
Reading 8: Assessing the Effect of Routine Activity Theory and Self-Control on Property, Personal, and Sexual Assault victimization Courtney A. Franklin, Travis W. Franklin, Matt R. Nobles, and Glen A. Kercher  
 
SECTION V: SOCIAL STRUCTURAL THEORIES
The Social Structural Tradition  
The Chicago School of Social Ecology/Social Disorganization  
The Anomie/Strain Tradition  
Gangs Today  
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Social Structural Theories  
Reading 9: Rural Youth Crime: A Reexamination of Social Disorganization Theory’s Applicability to Rural Areas Matthew D. Moore and Molly Sween  
Reading 10: Social Structure and Anomie Robert K. Merton  
 
SECTION VI: SOCIAL PROCESS THEORIES
The Basic Assumptions of Social Process Theories  
Differential Association Theory  
Ronald Akers’ Social Learning Theory  
Social Control Theories  
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s Low Self-Control Theory  
Integrating Social Control and Self-Control Theories  
Evaluation of Social Control and Self-Control Theories  
Labeling Theory: The Irony of Social Reaction  
Sykes and Matza’s Neutralization Theory  
Evaluation of Labeling and Neutralization Theories  
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Social Process Theories  
Reading 11: An Examination of Differential Association and Social Control Theory: Family Systems and Delinquency Wesley T. Church II, Tracy Wharton, and Julie K. Taylor  
Reading 12: Parental Low Self-Control, Parental Socialization, Young Adult Low self-Control, and Offending: A Retrospective Study Ryan C. Meldrum, Jacob T. N. Young, and Peter S. Lehmann  
 
SECTION VII: CRITICAL THEORIES: MARXIST, CONFLICT, AND FEMINIST
The Conflict Perspective of Society  
Karl Marx and Revolution  
Willem Bonger: The First Marxist Criminologist  
Modern Marxist Criminology  
Conflict Theory: Max Weber, Power, and Conflict  
Peacemaking Criminology  
Evaluation of Critical Theories  
Feminist Criminology  
Evaluation of Feminist Theories  
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Critical Theories  
Reading 13: Has Criminology Awakened From Its “Androcentric Slumber”? Kimberly J. Cook  
Reading 14: Patriarchy, Crime, and Justice: Feminist Criminology in an Era of Backlash Meda Chesney-Lind  
 
SECTION VIII: INDIVIDUAL TRAITS AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
Basic Assumptions of the Psychosocial Perspective on Criminal Behavior  
Intelligence  
The IQ/Crime Connection  
Temperament and Personality  
Conscience and Arousal  
Glenn Walters’s Lifestyle Theory  
The Antisocial Personalities  
Evaluation of the Psychosocial Perspective  
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Psychosocial Theories  
Reading 15: What Is the Effect of IQ on Offending? Daniel P. Mears and Joshua C. Cochran  
Reading 16: Recidivism in Released Lifestyle Change Program Participants Glen D. Walters  
 
SECTION IX: BIOSOCIAL APPROACHES
Behavior Genetics  
Gene-Environment Interaction and Correlation  
Behavior Genetics and Criminal Behavior  
Molecular Genetics  
Evolutionary Psychology  
The Evolution of Criminal Traits  
The Neurosciences  
Some Other Biosocial Risk Factors  
Evaluation of the Biosocial Perspective  
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Biosocial Theories  
Reading 17: A Theory Explaining Biological Correlates of Criminality Lee Ellis  
Reading 18: A Gene-Based Evolutionary Explanation for the Association Between Criminal Involvement and Number of Sex Partners Kevin M. Beaver, John P. Wright, and Anthony Walsh  
 
SECTION X: DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES: FROM DELINQUENCY TO CRIME TO DESISTANCE
Risk and Protective Factors for Serious Delinquency  
Major Developmental Theories  
Evaluation of Developmental Theories  
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Developmental Theories  
Reading 19: The Adolescence-Limited/Life-Course Persistent Theory of Antisocial Behavior: What Have We Learned? Terrie E. Moffitt and Anthony Walsh  
Reading 20: A Life-Course View of the Development of Crime Robert J. Sampson and John H. Laub  
 
SECTION XI: VIOLENT CRIMES
Murder  
Rape  
Robbery  
Aggravated Assault  
Domestic Violence  
Gun Violence  
Theories of Violence  
Violence and Inequality  
Reading 21: Getting the Upper Hand: Scripts for Managing Victim Resistance in Carjackings Heith Copes, Andy Hochstetler, and Michael Cherbonneau  
Reading 22: The Abuse of Technology in Domestic Violence and Stalking Delanie Woodlock  
 
SECTION XII: MULTIPLE MURDER AND TERRORISM
Mass, Spree, and Serial Murder  
Terrorism  
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant  
Reading 23: African Americans and Serial Killing in the Media: The Myth and the Reality Anthony Walsh  
Reading 24: Close Cousins or Distant Relatives? The Relationship Between Terrorism and Hate Crime Kathleen Deloughery, Ryan D. King, and Victor Asal  
 
SECTION XIII: PROPERTY CRIME
Larceny/Theft  
Burglary  
Motor Vehicle Theft  
Arson  
Crimes of Guile and Deceit: Embezzlement, Fraud, and Forgery/Counterfeiting  
Cybercrime: Oh What a Tangled World Wide Web We Weave  
Reading 25: The Impact of Neighborhood Context on Spatiotemporal Patterns of Burglary Matt R. Nobles, Jeffrey T. Ward, and Rob Tillyer  
Reading 26: Exploring the Subculture of Ideologically Motivated Cyber-Attackers Thomas J. Holt, Joshua D. Freilich, and Steven M. Chermak  
 
SECTION XIV: PUBLIC ORDER CRIME
The Scope of the Alcohol/Crime Problem  
The Effects of Alcohol and Context on Behavior  
Drunk Driving  
Alcoholism: Type I and Type II  
Illegal Drugs and Crime  
Prostitution and Commercialized Vice  
Reading 27: Medical Marijuana and Crime: Further Evidence From the Western States Edward M. Shepard and Paul R. Blackley  
Reading 28: DUI Offenders’ Beliefs About DUI Statutes and DUI Law Enforcement: Implications for Deterrence Marianne Goodfellow and Catharine Kilgore  
 
SECTION XV: WHITE-COLLAR AND ORGANIZED CRIME
The Concept of White-Collar Crime  
Occupational Crime  
Corporate Crime  
Organized Crime  
Theories of Organized Crime  
Reading 29: Criminal Thinking and Identity in Male White-Collar Offenders Glenn D. Walters and Matthew D. Geyer  
Reading 30: Corporate Environmental Crime and Environmental Justice Matthew Greife, Paul B. Stretesky, Tara O’Connor Shelley, and Mark Pogrebin  
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index
 
About the Authors

Supplements

Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
  • Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • Carefully selected, video and audio links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
Instructor Resource Site
  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content, features, and artwork from the book.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for lectures and class discussions.
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabi for your courses.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • Carefully selected, video and audio links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.

“This text is a fresh, clean approach to criminology.  It’s challenges the student to enhance their higher-level reading skills.  Ultimately the students should experience improvement in their use of evidence-based methodology through the use of peer-reviewed journal articles referencieng key points in their study of criminological theory.”

Thomas Ziesemer
College of Central Florida

“The text is well done and provides a solid overview of criminology. The text is supported by readings in each section  that help  provide students with information that allow them to more fully understand the materials . The material is consice and the point”

Kevin Warwick
Alternative Solutions Associates

“This is a very good text/reader that covers the most important theoretical explanations of criminal behavior and also offers details about various types of crimes and recent crime trends. While using a novel approach to the study of criminal behavior, the book is accessible, logically structured, and thought-provoking. It includes a good selection of contemporary writings that would help students better understand how theories can be applied to explain variations in crime and how research findings may be used to guide social policies.”

Viviana Andreescu
University of Louisville

You know how we prefer readers and students prefer texts because the readers don’t resonate with students because they do not know the content well enough? Well, Walsh corrected this problem with his “text/reader.” You willl love it because it gives students the basics in the text section and then two or three articels that more throughly explain the content and “draws a picture” of the content. It is the perfect combination of both. Personally, I love it.”

Kelley Christopher
University of West Georgia

“I chose this text/reader even though it is not entirely based on the sociological perspective. Criminology is interdisciplinary and my students come from many different disciplines. This text is a good balance for me and my students.”

Meredith Dye
Middle Tennessee State University

An introductory criminology textbook that is suited for students with various levels of knowledge and skills. What separates this intro book is the practical use of journal articles to foster both critical thinking and application skills; students would find these articles relevant and readable as well.”

Yumi Suzuki
Wichita State University

This is a great text for professors who use a textbook as a starting point in their classrooms. Some professors prefer a text to provide them with everything they need to teach a class and rely on the information in the book to give students the bulk of the information. Professors wanting that kind of text may not be happy. However, for professors who use the text as a means of providing students with fundamental, easily explained theoretical concepts and application to research that can then be expanded upon in class in a variety of ways…this text is great.”

Kate Burmon
University of Pikeville

Well written text, layout is great for an introductory criminal science course.

Dr Jamie Roberts
Humanities, Elmira College
July 15, 2017
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION: 

  • Over 50% new journal articles provide insight into the latest findings in criminology on topics such as human trafficking, rural crime, recidivism, the abuse of technology in domestic violence and stalking, cyber attacks, and drug use. 
  • New Theory in Action case studies present compelling examples of critical issues such as emotion and rationality, oppositional culture, self-control, genetics and neuroscience, and terrorism. 
  • A stronger focus on connecting theory to criminal acts enables students to see how the substantive sections (violent crime, property crime, serial killing, white-collar crime, and others) fit in with the section on theory. 
  • Statistics, graphs, and tables have all been updated to demonstrate the most recent trends in criminology. 

KEY FEATURES:

  • Substantially edited and abridged articles make this text easier to read, without doing injustice to the core points raised by the authors or detracting from the authors’ key findings and conclusions. Much of the methodological discussions and data analysis are removed.
  • Designed throughout to enhance understanding, the book includes a helpful "How to Read a Research Article" guide before the first reading, as well as article introductions, photographs, and discussion questions that capture student interest and help them develop their critical thinking skills.
  • Key terms, web resources, and thought-provoking discussion questions for each reading and each section help readers master the content and sharpen critical thinking skills.
  • Theory Section introductions contain a unique table that compares and contrasts the theories presented and concluding subsections focus on policy and crime prevention to help students connect theory to practice.

For instructors

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ISBN: 9781506399249
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