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Introduction to Criminology
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Introduction to Criminology
A Text/Reader

Fourth Edition
Additional resources:


February 2018 | 672 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

While using a novel approach to the study of criminal behavior, the book is accessible, logically structured, and thought-provoking. It includes a good selection of contemporary writings that would help students better understand how theories can be applied to explain variations in crime and how research findings may be used to guide social policies.”
—Viviana Andreescu, University of Louisville 

Introduction to Criminology: A Text/Reader, Fourth Edition offers students a unique, comprehensive, interdisciplinary introduction to the study of criminology. Anthony Walsh and Craig Hemmens provide the best of both worlds—a brief, authored text with carefully selected and edited accompanying readings. Covering both classic and contemporary research in criminology, each reading shows students how to use current research to better understand criminal behavior. Students also gain an interdisciplinary perspective of crime and criminality by exploring the latest theories, concepts, and research from sociology, psychology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and the neurosciences.

New to the Fourth Edition: 

  • Over 50% new journal articles provide insight into the latest findings in criminology on topics such as human trafficking, rural crime, recidivism, the abuse of technology in domestic violence and stalking, cyber attacks, and drug use. 
  • New Theory in Action case studies present compelling examples of critical issues such as emotion and rationality, oppositional culture, self-control, genetics and neuroscience, and terrorism. 
  • A stronger focus on connecting theory to criminal acts enables students to see how the substantive sections (violent crime, property crime, serial killing, white-collar crime, and others) fit in with the section on theory. 
  • Statistics, graphs, and tables have all been updated to demonstrate the most recent trends in criminology. 

The free, open-access Student Study site at study.sagepub.com/walsh4e features eFlashcards, web quizzes, video resources, SAGE journal articles, and more. 

Instructors, sign in at study.sagepub.com/walsh4e for additional resources! 


 
Foreword
 
Preface
 
SECTION I: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF CRIME AND CRIMINOLOGY
What Is Criminology?

 
What Is Crime?

 
Crime as a Moving Target

 
Crime as a Subcategory of Social Harms

 
Beyond Social Construction: The Stationary Core Crimes

 
Criminality

 
A Short History of Criminology

 
The Role of Theory in Criminology

 
A Brief Word About the Section Readings

 
Reading 1: The Use and Usefulness of Criminology, 1751–2005: Enlightened Justice and Its Failures Lawrence W. Sherman

 
Reading 2: What Biosocial Criminology Offers Criminology John Paul Wright and Danielle Boisvert

 
 
SECTION II: MEASURING CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
Categorizing and Measuring Crime and Criminal Behavior

 
The Uniform Crime Reports: Counting Crime Officially

 
NIBRS: The “New and Improved” UCR

 
Crime Victimization Survey Data and Their Inherent Problems

 
Areas of Agreement Between the UCR and NCVS

 
Self-Reported Crime Surveys and Their Inherent Problems

 
The Dark Figure of Crime

 
What Can We Conclude About the Three Main Measures of Crime in America?

 
The FBI’s Ten Most Wanted

 
Reading 3: Gender Gap Trends for Violent Crimes, 1980 to 2003: A UCR-NCVS Comparison Darrell Steffensmeier, Hua Zhong, Jeff Ackerman, Jennifer Schwartz, and Suzanne Agha

 
Reading 4: Race and the Probability of Arrest Stewart J. D’Alessio and Lisa Stolzenberg

 
 
SECTION III: VICTIMOLOGY: EXPLORING THE EXPERIENCE OF VICTIMIZATION
The Emergence of Victimology

 
Who Gets Victimized?

 
Victimization in the Workplace and School

 
Child Sexual Assault: Who Gets Victimized?

 
Human Trafficking

 
Victimization Theories

 
Is Victimology “Blaming the Victim”?

 
The Consequences of Victimization

 
Victimization and the Criminal Justice System

 
Reading 5: Understanding Human Trafficking in the United States T.K. Logan, Robert Walker, and Gretchen Hunt

 
Reading 6: MAOA, Drug Selling, and Violent Victimization: Evidence of a Gene x Environment Interaction Stephen J. Watts, Melissa J. Tetzlaff-Bemiller, and James C. McCutcheon

 
 
SECTION IV: THE EARLY SCHOOLS OF CRIMINOLOGY AND MODERN COUNTERPARTS
Preclassical Notions of Crime and Criminals

 
The Classical School

 
The Rise of Positivism

 
Neoclassicism: The Return of Choice and Deterrence

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Classical and Neoclassical Theories

 
Is the United States Hard or Soft on Crime?

 
Reading 7: An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation: Of the Principle of Utility Jeremy Bentham

 
Reading 8: Assessing the Effect of Routine Activity Theory and Self-Control on Property, Personal, and Sexual Assault victimization Courtney A. Franklin, Travis W. Franklin, Matt R. Nobles, and Glen A. Kercher

 
 
SECTION V: SOCIAL STRUCTURAL THEORIES
The Social Structural Tradition

 
The Chicago School of Social Ecology/Social Disorganization

 
The Anomie/Strain Tradition

 
Gangs Today

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Social Structural Theories

 
Reading 9: Rural Youth Crime: A Reexamination of Social Disorganization Theory’s Applicability to Rural Areas Matthew D. Moore and Molly Sween

 
Reading 10: Social Structure and Anomie Robert K. Merton

 
 
SECTION VI: SOCIAL PROCESS THEORIES
The Basic Assumptions of Social Process Theories

 
Differential Association Theory

 
Ronald Akers’ Social Learning Theory

 
Social Control Theories

 
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s Low Self-Control Theory

 
Integrating Social Control and Self-Control Theories

 
Evaluation of Social Control and Self-Control Theories

 
Labeling Theory: The Irony of Social Reaction

 
Sykes and Matza’s Neutralization Theory

 
Evaluation of Labeling and Neutralization Theories

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Social Process Theories

 
Reading 11: An Examination of Differential Association and Social Control Theory: Family Systems and Delinquency Wesley T. Church II, Tracy Wharton, and Julie K. Taylor

 
Reading 12: Parental Low Self-Control, Parental Socialization, Young Adult Low self-Control, and Offending: A Retrospective Study Ryan C. Meldrum, Jacob T. N. Young, and Peter S. Lehmann

 
 
SECTION VII: CRITICAL THEORIES: MARXIST, CONFLICT, AND FEMINIST
The Conflict Perspective of Society

 
Karl Marx and Revolution

 
Willem Bonger: The First Marxist Criminologist

 
Modern Marxist Criminology

 
Conflict Theory: Max Weber, Power, and Conflict

 
Peacemaking Criminology

 
Evaluation of Critical Theories

 
Feminist Criminology

 
Evaluation of Feminist Theories

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Critical Theories

 
Reading 13: Has Criminology Awakened From Its “Androcentric Slumber”? Kimberly J. Cook

 
Reading 14: Patriarchy, Crime, and Justice: Feminist Criminology in an Era of Backlash Meda Chesney-Lind

 
 
SECTION VIII: INDIVIDUAL TRAITS AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
Basic Assumptions of the Psychosocial Perspective on Criminal Behavior

 
Intelligence

 
The IQ/Crime Connection

 
Temperament and Personality

 
Conscience and Arousal

 
Glenn Walters’s Lifestyle Theory

 
The Antisocial Personalities

 
Evaluation of the Psychosocial Perspective

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Psychosocial Theories

 
Reading 15: What Is the Effect of IQ on Offending? Daniel P. Mears and Joshua C. Cochran

 
Reading 16: Recidivism in Released Lifestyle Change Program Participants Glen D. Walters

 
 
SECTION IX: BIOSOCIAL APPROACHES
Behavior Genetics

 
Gene-Environment Interaction and Correlation

 
Behavior Genetics and Criminal Behavior

 
Molecular Genetics

 
Evolutionary Psychology

 
The Evolution of Criminal Traits

 
The Neurosciences

 
Some Other Biosocial Risk Factors

 
Evaluation of the Biosocial Perspective

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Biosocial Theories

 
Reading 17: A Theory Explaining Biological Correlates of Criminality Lee Ellis

 
Reading 18: A Gene-Based Evolutionary Explanation for the Association Between Criminal Involvement and Number of Sex Partners Kevin M. Beaver, John P. Wright, and Anthony Walsh

 
 
SECTION X: DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES: FROM DELINQUENCY TO CRIME TO DESISTANCE
Risk and Protective Factors for Serious Delinquency

 
Major Developmental Theories

 
Evaluation of Developmental Theories

 
Policy and Prevention: Implications of Developmental Theories

 
Reading 19: The Adolescence-Limited/Life-Course Persistent Theory of Antisocial Behavior: What Have We Learned? Terrie E. Moffitt and Anthony Walsh

 
Reading 20: A Life-Course View of the Development of Crime Robert J. Sampson and John H. Laub

 
 
SECTION XI: VIOLENT CRIMES
Murder

 
Rape

 
Robbery

 
Aggravated Assault

 
Domestic Violence

 
Gun Violence

 
Theories of Violence

 
Violence and Inequality

 
Reading 21: Getting the Upper Hand: Scripts for Managing Victim Resistance in Carjackings Heith Copes, Andy Hochstetler, and Michael Cherbonneau

 
Reading 22: The Abuse of Technology in Domestic Violence and Stalking Delanie Woodlock

 
 
SECTION XII: MULTIPLE MURDER AND TERRORISM
Mass, Spree, and Serial Murder

 
Terrorism

 
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

 
Reading 23: African Americans and Serial Killing in the Media: The Myth and the Reality Anthony Walsh

 
Reading 24: Close Cousins or Distant Relatives? The Relationship Between Terrorism and Hate Crime Kathleen Deloughery, Ryan D. King, and Victor Asal

 
 
SECTION XIII: PROPERTY CRIME
Larceny/Theft

 
Burglary

 
Motor Vehicle Theft

 
Arson

 
Crimes of Guile and Deceit: Embezzlement, Fraud, and Forgery/Counterfeiting

 
Cybercrime: Oh What a Tangled World Wide Web We Weave

 
Reading 25: The Impact of Neighborhood Context on Spatiotemporal Patterns of Burglary Matt R. Nobles, Jeffrey T. Ward, and Rob Tillyer

 
Reading 26: Exploring the Subculture of Ideologically Motivated Cyber-Attackers Thomas J. Holt, Joshua D. Freilich, and Steven M. Chermak

 
 
SECTION XIV: PUBLIC ORDER CRIME
The Scope of the Alcohol/Crime Problem

 
The Effects of Alcohol and Context on Behavior

 
Drunk Driving

 
Alcoholism: Type I and Type II

 
Illegal Drugs and Crime

 
Prostitution and Commercialized Vice

 
Reading 27: Medical Marijuana and Crime: Further Evidence From the Western States Edward M. Shepard and Paul R. Blackley

 
Reading 28: DUI Offenders’ Beliefs About DUI Statutes and DUI Law Enforcement: Implications for Deterrence Marianne Goodfellow and Catharine Kilgore

 
 
SECTION XV: WHITE-COLLAR AND ORGANIZED CRIME
The Concept of White-Collar Crime

 
Occupational Crime

 
Corporate Crime

 
Organized Crime

 
Theories of Organized Crime

 
Reading 29: Criminal Thinking and Identity in Male White-Collar Offenders Glenn D. Walters and Matthew D. Geyer

 
Reading 30: Corporate Environmental Crime and Environmental Justice Matthew Greife, Paul B. Stretesky, Tara O’Connor Shelley, and Mark Pogrebin

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index
 
About the Authors

Supplements

Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
  • Mobile-friendly web quizzes allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • Carefully selected, video and audio links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
Instructor Resource Site
  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content, features, and artwork from the book.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation for lectures and class discussions.
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabi for your courses.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • Carefully selected, video and audio links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.

“This text is a fresh, clean approach to criminology.  It’s challenges the student to enhance their higher-level reading skills.  Ultimately the students should experience improvement in their use of evidence-based methodology through the use of peer-reviewed journal articles referencieng key points in their study of criminological theory.”

Thomas Ziesemer
College of Central Florida

“The text is well done and provides a solid overview of criminology. The text is supported by readings in each section  that help  provide students with information that allow them to more fully understand the materials . The material is consice and the point”

Kevin Warwick
Alternative Solutions Associates

“This is a very good text/reader that covers the most important theoretical explanations of criminal behavior and also offers details about various types of crimes and recent crime trends. While using a novel approach to the study of criminal behavior, the book is accessible, logically structured, and thought-provoking. It includes a good selection of contemporary writings that would help students better understand how theories can be applied to explain variations in crime and how research findings may be used to guide social policies.”

Viviana Andreescu
University of Louisville

You know how we prefer readers and students prefer texts because the readers don’t resonate with students because they do not know the content well enough? Well, Walsh corrected this problem with his “text/reader.” You willl love it because it gives students the basics in the text section and then two or three articels that more throughly explain the content and “draws a picture” of the content. It is the perfect combination of both. Personally, I love it.”

Kelley Christopher
University of West Georgia

“I chose this text/reader even though it is not entirely based on the sociological perspective. Criminology is interdisciplinary and my students come from many different disciplines. This text is a good balance for me and my students.”

Meredith Dye
Middle Tennessee State University

An introductory criminology textbook that is suited for students with various levels of knowledge and skills. What separates this intro book is the practical use of journal articles to foster both critical thinking and application skills; students would find these articles relevant and readable as well.”

Yumi Suzuki
Wichita State University

This is a great text for professors who use a textbook as a starting point in their classrooms. Some professors prefer a text to provide them with everything they need to teach a class and rely on the information in the book to give students the bulk of the information. Professors wanting that kind of text may not be happy. However, for professors who use the text as a means of providing students with fundamental, easily explained theoretical concepts and application to research that can then be expanded upon in class in a variety of ways…this text is great.”

Kate Burmon
University of Pikeville

Well written text, layout is great for an introductory criminal science course.

Dr Jamie Roberts
Humanities, Elmira College
July 15, 2017
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION: 

  • Over 50% new journal articles provide insight into the latest findings in criminology on topics such as human trafficking, rural crime, recidivism, the abuse of technology in domestic violence and stalking, cyber attacks, and drug use. 
  • New Theory in Action case studies present compelling examples of critical issues such as emotion and rationality, oppositional culture, self-control, genetics and neuroscience, and terrorism. 
  • A stronger focus on connecting theory to criminal acts enables students to see how the substantive sections (violent crime, property crime, serial killing, white-collar crime, and others) fit in with the section on theory. 
  • Statistics, graphs, and tables have all been updated to demonstrate the most recent trends in criminology. 

KEY FEATURES:

  • Substantially edited and abridged articles make this text easier to read, without doing injustice to the core points raised by the authors or detracting from the authors’ key findings and conclusions. Much of the methodological discussions and data analysis are removed.
  • Designed throughout to enhance understanding, the book includes a helpful "How to Read a Research Article" guide before the first reading, as well as article introductions, photographs, and discussion questions that capture student interest and help them develop their critical thinking skills.
  • Key terms, web resources, and thought-provoking discussion questions for each reading and each section help readers master the content and sharpen critical thinking skills.
  • Theory Section introductions contain a unique table that compares and contrasts the theories presented and concluding subsections focus on policy and crime prevention to help students connect theory to practice.

For instructors

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ISBN: 9781506399249
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