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Introduction to Criminology
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Introduction to Criminology
Why Do They Do It?

Third Edition
Additional resources:


January 2020 | 560 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Introduction to Criminology: Why Do They Do It? offers a contemporary and integrated discussion of key criminological theories to help students understand crime in the 21st century. Focusing on why offenders commit crimes, authors Pamela J. Schram and Stephen G. Tibbetts apply established theories to real-life examples to explain criminal behavior. Coverage of violent and property crimes is included throughout theory chapters so that students can clearly understand the application of theory to criminal behavior. The Third Edition includes new and expanded coverage of timely topics, such as victimization, measuring crime, multicide, gun control, and hate crimes.

INSTRUCTORS: Introduction to Criminology: Why Do They Do It? is accompanied by a complete teaching and learning package! Contact your rep to request a demo.
  • SAGE Premium Video
    Exclusive videos in the accompanying Interactive eBook bring concepts to life, including Author Videos, Student on the Street Videos, Theory in Action Videos, and What Were They Thinking? Videos. Learn more.
  • Interactive eBook
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Chapter 1. Introduction to Criminology
Introduction

 
Key Concepts to Understanding Criminology

 
The Criminal Justice System

 
Criminology Theory

 
Victimology

 
 
Chapter 2. Measuring Crime
Introduction

 
Crime Data From Law Enforcement Agencies

 
Crime Data from Victims of Crime: The National Crime Victimization Survey

 
Crime Data from Self-Report Surveys

 
Additional Approaches to Collecting Crime Data

 
 
Chapter 3. Classical School of Criminology Thought
Introduction

 
Pre-Classical Perspectives of Crime and Punishment

 
The Age of Enlightenment

 
The Classical School of Criminology

 
Impact of Beccaria’s Work on Other Theorists

 
The Neoclassical School of Criminology

 
Loss of Dominance of Classical/Neoclassical Theory

 
Policy Implications

 
 
Chapter 4. Contemporary Classical and Deterrence Research
Introduction

 
Rebirth of Deterrence Theory and Contemporary Research

 
Rational Choice Theory

 
Routine Activities Theory

 
Policy Implications

 
 
Chapter 5. Early Positivism
Introduction

 
Early Biological Theories of Behavior

 
Lombroso’s Theory of Atavism and Born Criminals

 
After Lombroso: The IQ-Testing Era

 
Body Type Theory: Sheldon’s Model of Somatotyping

 
Policy Implications

 
 
Chapter 6. Modern Biosocial Perspectives of Criminal Behavior
Introduction

 
Nature Versus Nurture: Studies Examining the Influence of Genetics and Environment

 
Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

 
Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

 
Brain Injuries

 
Central and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

 
Biosocial Approaches Toward Explaining Criminal Behavior

 
Case Study Revisited: The Spahalski Brothers

 
Policy Implications

 
 
Chapter 7. Psychological/Trait Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Early Psychological Theorizing Regarding Criminal Behavior

 
Modern Versions of Psychological Perspectives of Criminality

 
Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System

 
Policy Implications of Psychological/Trait Theories

 
 
Chapter 8: Social Structure Theories of Crime I
Introduction

 
Early Theories of Social Structure: Early to Late 1800s

 
Durkheim and the Concept of Anomie

 
Merton’s Strain Theory

 
Variations of Merton’s Strain Theory

 
General Strain Theory

 
Summary of Strain Theories

 
Policy Implications of Strain Theory

 
 
Chapter 9: Social Structure Theories of Crime II
Introduction

 
The Ecological School and the Chicago School of Criminology

 
Shaw and McKay’s Theory of Social Disorganization

 
Cultural and Subcultural Theories of Crime

 
Criticisms of Cultural Theories of Crime

 
Policy Implications

 
 
Chapter 10: Social Process and Control Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Learning Theories

 
Differential Reinforcement Theory

 
Control Theories

 
A General Theory of Crime: Low Self-Control

 
Policy Implications

 
 
Chapter 11: Labeling Theory and Conflict/Marxist/Radical Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
Labeling Theory

 
Foundation of Labeling Theory

 
Evaluating Labeling Theory

 
Conflict Perspectives

 
Evaluating Conflict Theories

 
Additional Critical Theories

 
Policies Related to Labeling and Conflict Theories of Crime

 
 
Chapter 12: Feminist Theories of Crime
Introduction

 
A Brief History of Feminism in the United States

 
Feminist Perspectives on Gender

 
Traditional Theories of Female Crime

 
Liberation Thesis

 
Power-Control Theory

 
Feminist Perspectives on Understanding Crime and Criminal Behavior

 
Policies Based on Feminist Theories of Crime

 
 
Chapter 13. Developmental/Life-Course Perspectives criminality
Basic Concepts and Early Developmental Theory

 
Antidevelopmental Theory: Low Self-Control Theory

 
Modern Developmental/Life-Course Perspectives

 
Policy Implications

 
 
Chapter 14. WHITE-COLLAR CRIME, ORGANIZED CRIME, AND CYBERCRIME
Introduction

 
What is White-Collar Crime?

 
Incidence and Impact of White-Collar Crime on Society

 
Types of White-Collar Crime

 
Theoretical Explanations of White-Collar Crime

 
Organized Crime

 
Cybercrime

 
 
Chapter 15. Hate Crimes, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
Introduction

 
Hate Crime

 
Multicide

 
Terrorism

 
Homeland Security

 
Policy Implications

 
 
Chapter 16. Drugs and Crime
Introduction

 
Commonly Abused Drugs

 
Trends of Drug Use

 
The Drug-Crime Link

 
Modern Policies Related to Reducing Drug Use

 
Recommendations for Future Policies

 

Supplements

Student Study Site
SAGE Edge for students enhances learning, it’s easy to use, and offers:
  • an open-access site that makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime;
  • video and multimedia resources that bring concepts to life, are tied to learning objectives, and are curated exclusively for this text; 
  • eFlashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts;
  • eQuizzes that allow students to practice and assess how much they’ve learned and where they need to focus their attention; and
  • Learning Check answers that provide students with the correct answers to questions in the textbook. 
Instructor Resource
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*For use in: Blackboard, Canvas, Brightspace by Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle
 
Don’t use an LMS platform? No problem, you can still access many of the online resources for your text via SAGE Edge.

With SAGE Coursepacks, you get: 

  • quality textbook content delivered directly into your LMS
  • an intuitive, simple format that makes it easy to integrate the material into your course with minimal effort;
  • assessment tools that foster review, practice, and critical thinking, including:
    • diagnostic chapter Coursepack chapter quizzes that identify opportunities for improvement, track student progress, and ensure mastery of key learning objectives
    • test banks built on Bloom’s Taxonomy that provide a diverse range of test items with ExamView test generation
    • activity and quiz options that allow you to choose only the assignments and tests you want 
    • instructions on how to use and integrate the comprehensive assessments and resources provided;
  • assignable SAGE Premium Video (available via the Interactive eBook version, linked through SAGE Coursepacks) that is tied to learning objectives, and curated and produced exclusively for this text to bring concepts to life, featuring: 
  • Corresponding multimedia assessment options that automatically feed to your gradebook 
  • Comprehensive, downloadable, easy-to-use Media Guide in the Coursepack for every video resource, listing the chapter to which the video content is tied, matching learning objective(s), a helpful description of the video content, and assessment questions; 
  • editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer flexibility when creating multimedia lectures so you don’t have to start from scratch;
  • lecture notes that summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help you with preparation for lectures and class discussions;
  • integrated links to the Interactive eBook that make it easy for students to maximize their study time with this “anywhere, anytime” mobile-friendly version of the text. It also offers access to more digital tools and resources, including SAGE Premium Video; and
  • all tables and figures from the textbook. 
 

"Schram and Tibbetts provide a thorough introduction to the study of crime and deviance. A must-read for anyone seriously interested in learning about the causes and correlates of criminal behavior."

Eric J. Connolly
Sam Houston State University

"The text has supplemental material as well as case studies to back up the content. It is easy to read and students will like the colorful print and text type."

Christen C. Shea
Polk State College
Key features
NEW TO THIS EDITION:
  • An expanded discussion of victimization focuses on victims of crime and presents key concepts in victimology.
  • An entire chapter dedicated to measuring crime provides students a foundation to understanding and appreciating how crime data enhance our understanding of criminal activity.
  • New case studies help explain and apply the theories of the given chapter to actual offenses.
  • A new section on multicide examines the motivations behind mass murders and school shootings, as well as issues of race and religious ideology linked to these types of crimes.
  • Up-to-date coverage of contemporary issues includes gun control, mental health, disparity in the criminal justice system, cybercrime and Internet fraud, hate crimes, and terrorism.
  • Additional critical thinking questions help students understand the connection between real-world examples and theory.
  • Revised learning objectives follow Bloom’s taxonomy and provide students with a clearer pedagogical framework.

KEY FEATURES:

 

  • SAGE Premium Video in the accompanying interactive eBook bring concepts to life.
    • Author Videos: In these videos, co-author Stephen G. Tibbetts introduces and summarizes key concepts in the chapter. 
    • Student on the Street Videos: These videos feature interviews with students, illustrating common misconceptions of criminal justice. 
    • Theory in Action Videos: These clips include candid interviews with former offenders and cement theoretical concepts for the students.
    • What Were They Thinking? Videos: In these videos, co-author Steven G. Tibbetts provides an example of a bizarre crime and links it back to theoretical concepts discussed in the chapter. 
  • Chapter-opening vignettes present real-life cases that tie directly to the concepts discussed in the chapter; cases are revisited throughout the chapter as students to contextualize the theories and concepts.
  • Why Do They Do It cases give students an opportunity to critically analyze some of the most high profile cases they hear about in the news.
  • An entire chapter devoted to Feminist criminological theories gives attention to a topic not adequately covered in most other introductory textbooks. 
  • Applying Theory to Crime boxes help students apply the chapter concepts to violent and property crimes within the context of theory chapter.
  • Learning Checks throughout chapters help students test their knowledge and reading retention.
  • Policy Implications sections at the ends of chapters demonstrate the applications of the theories.

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