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AERA Open

AERA Open


eISSN: 23328584 | ISSN: 23328584 | Current volume: 6 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Continuous
AERA Open is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the American Educational Research Association (AERA). AERA Open aims to advance knowledge related to education and learning through rigorous empirical and theoretical study, conducted in a wide range of academic disciplines. AERA Open publishes studies of education and learning in various contexts, such as early childhood, after-school, primary and secondary, and post-secondary education.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Click here to read submission guidelines FAQ.

AERA Open is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the American Educational Research Association (AERA). With an emphasis on rapid review and dissemination, AERA Open aims to advance knowledge through theoretical and empirical study across arenas of inquiry related to education and learning. AERA Open emphasizes publishing scientific and scholarly work that adds to knowledge incrementally and cumulatively. AERA Open also serves as a venue for innovation, novel inquiry and ideas, interdisciplinary bridge building, and research that fosters the connection of research to practice and practice to research.

AERA Open’s content will transcend the boundaries between education research and other adjacent fields of inquiry, formal and informal education, research and development, education and other social institutions in society, early and later stages of human development, and scientific and humanistic study. By design, AERA Open seeks to avert the silos and stereotypes that can lead to favoring one rigorous method over another or one conceptual framework or model as more robust than another. AERA Open will not only make knowledge available, it will also use its available space to promote access to data; research instruments, protocols and guides; and other supplemental sources of information that will enhance the value of articles as well as stimulate others to pursue research or its application. As an online journal, AERA Open will provide a publishing venue for works in new and innovative formats, such as video, interactive data tables, and audio recordings that a print format precludes.

Read the Inaugural Editors' Editorial. Check out the most recent articles here.

Editor in Chief
Mark Warschauer University of California - Irvine, USA
Editors
Greg J. Duncan University of California, Irvine, USA
Nancy E. Hill Harvard University, Graduate School of Education
Managing Editor
Sabrina Kataoka University of California, Irvine, USA
Associate Editors
Daniel Bolt University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Educational Psychology, USA
Kalena Cortes Texas A&M University, Bush School of Government and Public Service, USA
George Farkas University of California, Irvine, School of Education
Seth Gershenson American University, USA
Louis Gomez University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Andrew Ho Harvard University, Graduate School of Education
Vikki S. Katz Rutgers University, USA
Jeannette Mancilla-Martinez Vanderbilt University, College of Education and Human Development, USA
Robert Pianta University of Virginia, Curry School of Education, USA
Justin Reich Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Cecilia Rios-Aguilar University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Laura Stapleton University of Maryland, USA
Helen Watt University of Sydney, Australia
Joanna Lee Williams University of Virginia, USA
Editorial Board
Emma K. Adam Northwestern University, School of Education and Social Policy
Ashley Adams University of California, Irvine, School of Education
Stephen J. Aguilar Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California, USA
Drew M. Anderson RAND Corporation
Allison Atteberry University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
Drew H. Bailey University of California, Irvine, School of Education
Rachel Baker University of California, Irvine, USA
Aprile Benner University of Texas at Austin, Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, USA
David Blazar University of Maryland, USA
David Bloome The Ohio State University, USA
Mimi Bong Korea University, Department of Education and the Brain and Motivation Research Institute, Korea
Sade Bonilla University of Massachusetts, College of Education, USA
Diamond Y. Bravo Harvard University, Graduate School of Education
Derek Briggs University of Colorado at Boulder, USA
Shaundra Bryant Daily University of Florida, Department of Computer and Information Science and Engineering, USA
Elise Cappella New York University, USA
Joanna Christodoulou MGH Institute of Health Professions, Harvard Graduate School of Education, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Damon Clark University of California, Irvine, Department of Economics, USA
Rebecca J. Collie University of New South Wales, School of Education, Australia
Robert Crosnoe University of Texas-Austin, Department of Sociology, USA
John B. Diamond University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Benjamin W. Dominigue Stanford University, Graduate School of Education, USA
Noah D. Drezner Teachers College, Columbia University, USA
Juan Carlos Garibay University of Virginia, USA
Jennie K. Grammer University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Education
DeLeon Gray North Carolina State University, Educational Psychology Program, College of Education, USA
Laura E. Hernández Learning Policy Institute
Heather C. Hill Harvard Graduate School of Education, USA
Doris Holzberger Technical University of Munich, School of Education
Francis L. Huang University of Missouri, USA
Noelle Hurd University of Virginia
Jennifer Wallace Jacoby Mount Holyoke College, Department of Psychology and Education
James S. Kim Harvard University, Graduate School of Education
Young-Suk Kim Florida State University, College of Education and Florida Center for Reading Research, USA
Johannes König University of Cologne, Germany, Empirical School Research, Germany
Rebecca Lazarides University of Potsdam, Germany
Luis A. Leyva Vanderbilt University, Peabody College of Education & Human Development
Jane Arnold Lincove University of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA
Constance A. Lindsay University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
Fantasy T. Lozada Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Psychology, Developmental Psychology
Gigi Luk McGill University, Canada
Issac McFarlin, Jr. University of Michigan, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, USA
Tatiana Melguizo University of Southern California, USA
P. Zitlali Morales University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Chandra Muller University of Texas at Austin
Lindsay Page University of Pittsburgh, USA
Natalia Palacios University of Virginia, Curry School of Education, USA
Reinhard Pekrun University of Munich, Department of Psychology, Germany
Emily Phillips Galloway Vanderbilt University, College of Education and Human Development, USA
Morgan Polikoff Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California, USA
David M. Quinn University of Southern California, USA
Heather T. Rowan-Kenyon Boston College, Lynch School of Education and Human Development
Teomara Rutherford North Carolina State University, Department of Teacher Education and Learning Sciences, USA
Nayssan Safavian University of California, Irvine
Barbara Schneider Michigan State University, College of Education and Department of Sociology
Janelle Scott University of California, Berkeley, USA
Zewelanji Serpell Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Psychology, USA
Jessaca Spybrook Western Michigan University, USA
Lori L. Taylor Texas A&M University, Bush School of Government and Public Service, USA
Ulrich Trautwein University of Tübingen, Germany
Ming-Te Wang University of Pittsburgh, USA
Martin R. West Harvard University, Graduate School of Education
Tiffany A. Whittaker The University of Texas at Austin, USA
Daniel T. Willingham University of Virginia, USA
Vivian C. Wong University of Virginia, Curry School of Education
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • ERIC (Education Resources Information Center)
  • Click here to read submission guidelines FAQ.
     

    AERA Open is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

     

    Types of Manuscripts

    AERA Open publishes research on educational processes and outcomes, broadly defined. Papers can be conducted in a wide range of academic disciplines, including but not limited to psychology, economics, neuroscience, anthropology, and sociology, and can also be interdisciplinary. Submissions can focus on education and learning in any context (e.g., early childhood, after-school, post-secondary) or country provided they are suitably contextualized for AERA’s readership.

    The majority of articles published in AERA Open will be empirical studies, which draw on quantitative, qualitative or mixed-methods traditions. Occasional exceptions are made for innovative conceptual articles that make very special contributions in illuminating learning processes and outcomes or methodological articles that offer new approaches in the collection or analysis of data. In most cases, we expect conceptual and methodological papers to be largely based on prior empirical research. We also welcome meta-analysis, replication studies, and studies with precisely-defined null results. We do not publish opinion essays, literature reviews, pilot studies or practical guides.

    A manuscript can be submitted as a regular article, a special topic article, or a registered report.

    Special Topic Articles

    AERA Open publishes special topic collections on a range of important interdisciplinary themes related to education. See the special topic collections page to view current calls for papers. Note that many special topics require prior approval of an abstract.

    Registered Reports

    Registered reports offer a new form of manuscript review. Manuscripts are submitted for review before data are collected and/or analyzed. The manuscripts can then receive in-principle acceptance based on the quality of the research question and methods rather than on the direction, nature, effect size, or presence or absence of certain findings.

    Registered reports are designed to improve both the iterative nature of research review and the transparency of research. Any manuscript involving specific answerable questions, whether based on quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods, may be submitted as a registered report. When authors initially submit a registered report, they submit a Phase 1 manuscript with their introduction, focal hypotheses or driving questions, and methods section. The Phase 1 manuscript goes through a peer-review process, in which reviewers evaluate whether the questions are important and well formulated and whether the research methods are carefully designed and provide a robust process for testing hypotheses and/or addressing questions. If the manuscript is reviewed favorably (after one or multiple iterations), the editors then grant  in-principle acceptance, whereby, if the authors have conducted the research generally as described (noting deviations from the original plans), the editors agree to publish the article without prejudice as to the specific findings. This approach aligns editorial and author incentives toward publishing articles on important questions with excellent research designs, while avoiding incentives that encourage publication of work that continually adjusts the methods in alignment with desired results or seeks certain p values to be considered important.

    Why submit a registered report?

    For studies with a clear motivating question or hypothesis, pre-registration and the registered report format has four key strengths compared with standard review:

    1.       First, the registered report format creates an iterative process of review, in which authors have the opportunity to get feedback from reviewers before collection or analysis of data, thus strengthening the research design at the ideal time in the research process.

    2.       Second, because protocols are accepted in advance of data being collected, the registered report format provides a greater incentive for researchers to conduct novel, resource-intensive projects (e.g., involving multisite consortia) that would otherwise be too risky to undertake where the publishability of the outcome is contingent on the results (Makel & Plucker, 2014). Note that registered reports are equally useful for original research and replications, irrespective of methodology.

    3.       Third, the registered report format prevents publication bias (the so-called “file-drawer” problem) by ensuring that editorial decisions are made on the basis of the theoretical importance and methodological clarity of a study, before research outcomes are known. See Rosenthal (1979) for more on the “file-drawer” problem.

    4.      Fourth, for those manuscripts reviewed in this manner, it will reduce common forms of research bias, including p hacking and HARKing (hindsight bias), while still welcoming manuscripts reviewed through the standard publication process after the research and writing are fully completed (Gehlbach & Robinson, 2017; Nosek, Ebersole, DeHaven, & Mellor, 2017; Simmons, Nelson, & Simonsohn, 2011).

    What is the difference between a registered report and pre-registration?

    Pre-registration, which is registration of a document stating the questions or hypotheses and methods of a study prior to the collection and analysis of data, differs from a registered report, which is the peer-reviewed full article that is based on a pre-registered protocol. By submitting your Introduction and Methods sections (including hypotheses or answerable questions) to AERA Open for peer review prior to the collection and analysis of data, you are pre-registering your protocol as part of the peer-review process for a registered report (see below for details about the two phases of peer review). However, this pre-registration in AERA Open is not a public pre-registration because it is not accessible to the public. For authors interested in more information about public pre-registration, contact the AERA-ICPSR Research Data HUB at AERA-ICPSR-PEERS@aera.net

    Submission and review processes for registered reports

    Registered reports differ from conventional empirical articles in having a two-phase publication process.

    In Phase 1, authors write their Introduction and Methods sections (including their focal answerable questions or hypotheses) before collecting or analyzing any data. Together with any prepared materials and analysis scripts, the manuscript is then reviewed by peers. High-quality pre-registered protocols that meet strict editorial criteria will then be offered in-principle acceptance. The AERA Open editors are pleased to accept for review manuscripts that test specific answerable questions using any suitable quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods approaches (see Gehlbach & Robinson, 2017, for a description of how pre-registration might work for nonexperimental studies).

    Phase 2 of peer review occurs after data collection and resembles the standard peer-review process. However, the in-principle acceptance guarantees publication of the results provided the authors have adhered to their pre-registered protocol (or clearly note necessary or reasonable modifications) and provided that pre-specified quality standards are achieved in the final product. While registered reports are focused on testing pre-registered questions or hypotheses with pre-defined methods of analysis, these reports can be clarified or expanded along the way, and the final manuscript can certainly include exploratory analyses that are labeled as such. In that sense, registered reports do not diminish the freedom or creativity of the researcher and may enhance it.

    For a collection of registered reports in their final published form and reflections on the registered report process by AERA Open authors, and an introductory paper on registered reports in education research, see our Registered Report Special Topic Collection, guest edited by Justin Reich, Hunter Gehlbach, and Casper Albers.

     

    Manuscript Submission

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aeraopen to upload your manuscript.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of AERA Open will be reviewed. As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    Open Access

    As an open access journal, AERA Open is freely available online immediately upon publication. All articles are rigorously peer-reviewed and brought to publication as rapidly as possible. Production costs are covered by Article Processing Charges (APC) paid by the authors/institutions/funders upon acceptance of their manuscripts (more information below). There is no charge for submitting a paper to AERA Open.

    For general information on open access at SAGE please visit the Open Access page or view our Open Access FAQs.

    Continuous Publication

    One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no issues to fill and no word count constraints (main text can include up to 8,000 words, but no word limit for online supplemental material), your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as the production process is complete. At this time it will be completely free for readers to view and download. Check the “Latest Articles” tab on the journal website for the most recent published content.

    Publication Standards

    AERA Open accepts only original research articles. Researchers submitting manuscripts should consult the Standards for Reporting on Research in AERA Publications and the AERA Code of Ethics. Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of AERA Open will be reviewed. As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    Publication Fees

    Upon acceptance of your manuscript, you will be charged a one-time Author Processing Charge (APC). This fee covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available. Once the charge has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and will appear online within an average of 20 working days.

    Author processing charges are listed below. Please note, the Interim article processing charges will go into effect as of September 1, 2019 and will remain in effect until November 2020. Any accepted articles originally submitted from 9/1/2019 - November 2020 will be subject to this pricing.

    Author Category

    Interim Article Processing Charge

    Standard Article Processing Charge

    Pricing In Effect:

    From 9/1/2019 – November 2020

    From November 2020 onwards

    Standard Rate

    $450

    $700

    AERA Member Rate*

    $250

    $400

    AERA Graduate Student Member Rate**

    $75

    $100

    Non-Member Graduate Student Rate**

    $175

    $200

    * All authors must be an AERA member in order to qualify for the AERA member rate
    ** All authors must be “Graduate Student” members of Association in order to qualify for the discounted rate.

    Note that the article processing charge will be waived for authors who are residents of a country included in the World Bank list of low-income countries, provided that all authors of the manuscript are residents of the low income country. Authors of manuscripts who are residents of a country included in the World Bank list of lower middle income countries, provided that all authors of the manuscript are residents of the lower middle income country, will be eligible for the standard or student member rate, as applicable.

    How to Submit Your Manuscript

    All manuscripts for AERA Open should be submitted electronically at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aeraopen. Authors should read the inaugural editorial. For specific questions or inquiries, email the AERA Open editor. Manuscript submissions by email are not accepted.

    Manuscript Preparation

    File types

    Only electronic files conforming to the journal’s guidelines will be accepted. Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are Word DOC, RTF, and XLS. LaTeX files are also accepted. Please refer to the additional guidelines on submitting artwork and supplemental files, below.

    Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    Reference style

    AERA Open manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the style guidelines of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 7th edition.

    Manuscript style and format

    Manuscripts should not exceed 8,000 words in length, excluding tables, appendices, figures, notes, and references. (The editors encourage authors of empirical articles to submit main manuscripts that are under 5,000 words and focus on summaries of relevant research literature, procedures, and results, and then include supplementary online material to provide further details of data, measures, and robustness-checking.) Note that, if the submitted work is based on modes of scholarship that do not rely on the written word (e.g., photographs, recordings), researchers should aim to use equivalent criteria that convey the logic of scholarly reasoning in as concise a manner as feasible.

    Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the page after the title page. Manuscripts should be typed for 8½” x 11” paper, in upper and lower case, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins on all sides. The type size should be at least 12 point. Figures and tables are to be placed at the end of the text. Subheads should be placed at reasonable intervals to break the monotony of lengthy text. Sentence structure, not italics, should be used to create emphasis. Abbreviations and acronyms should be spelled out at first mention. Mathematical symbols and Greek letters should be formatted to indicate italics, boldface, superscript, and subscript.

    Notes are for explanations or amplifications of textual material, not for reference information. They are distracting to readers and expensive to set and should be avoided whenever possible. They should be typed as normal text at the end of the text section of the manuscript rather than as part of the footnote or endnote feature of a computer program and should be numbered consecutively through the article.

    Manuscripts must include a list of references, which should include only sources that are cited in the text. The accuracy and completeness of references and citations are the responsibility of the author(s). Reference each dataset with its title, author, date, and a persistent web identifier, such as a digital object identifier (DOI), a handle, or a uniform resource name (URN). If necessary, this last element may be replaced by a web address and an access date, although researchers are urged to use the DOI as the preferred citation. Personal communications (letters, memos, telephone conversations) are cited in the text after the name with as exact a date as possible.

    All manuscripts should include an abstract of 100–150 words, followed by a list of keywords (the terms that researchers will use to find the article in indexes and databases). Abstracts should be structured to inform readers of the purpose, methods, and findings of the research or the equivalent for theoretical or non-empirical manuscripts.

    Provide full contact details for the corresponding author, including email, affiliation, mailing address, and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented in their own file, separate from the main text of the article, to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    Figures and tables should present data to the reader in a clear and unambiguous manner. They should be keyed to the text. If illustration and text are redundant, eliminate the illustration or reduce the amount of detail provided in the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page and should not appear in full on the original figures. One high-quality electronic version of each figure must be submitted with the manuscript that is to be typeset. Tables will be typeset. Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.

    For additional guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures, and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    Photographic illustrations should be rendered with at least 300 dpi; please use CMYK color conversion if possible. Graphs made with Office software such as Microsoft Excel can be provided in their original format to facilitate conversion into printable format with preserved quality. Any other line graphs/illustrations should preferably be provided in EPS format with a resolution of at least 600 dpi to prevent ragged lines when printed. A figure image should be at least 160 mm in width at the appropriate resolution. For further guidance on how to prepare your digital image see http://art.cadmus.com/da/index.jsp.

    Researchers need to address conflicts of interest, human subjects protection, and data sharing in accordance with AERA’s standards for reporting on research in AERA publications.

    AERA Open encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    To comply with the guidance for research funders, authors and publishers issued by the Research Information Network (RIN), AERA Open additionally requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit Funding Acknowledgment on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state in your acknowledgments that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    This journal is able to host approved supplemental materials online, alongside the full text of articles. Supplemental files will be subjected to peer-review together with the article. For more information please refer to SAGE’s Guidelines for Authors on Supplemental Files.

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using the services offered by SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    Blinding

    AERA Open uses double-blind review. Authors will not know the identities of reviewers and reviewers will not know the identities of authors.

    The complete title of the article and the name(s) of the author(s) should be provided only in a separate cover-page file to ensure anonymity in the review process. The text should have no author names but may carry a short article title at the top. Names of authors in citations and references should not be blinded; however, information in text that would identify those references as belonging to the author should be deleted from the manuscript (e.g., text citations of “my previous work,” especially when accompanied by a self-citation; a preponderance of the author’s own work in the reference list). These elements may be reinserted in the final draft. Information that could help identify any author (e.g., mention of any affiliation) should also be removed. Citations and references to undistributed work, as long as it is unsearchable on the web, should be blinded using “Author” and realphabetized in the reference list. The author’s name should be removed from the document’s Properties.

     

    Proofs

    We will email a PDF of the proofs to the corresponding author. Any accompanying queries should be answered as soon as possible so that publication is not delayed. The PDF of your article will be available for download on the journal website after publication. Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process.

    We value your feedback to ensure that we continue to improve our author service. Upon publication all corresponding authors will receive a brief survey questionnaire on your experience of publishing in AERA Open with SAGE.

    Contributor’s Publishing Agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. AERA Open publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard AERA Open license is Creative Commons by Attribution NonCommerical (CC BY-NC), which allows others to reuse the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is noncommercial. Authors may also use the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) if required by their institution or funders. For more information, you are advised to visit SAGE’s OA licenses page.

    Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.

    AERA Open and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism, or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of articles published in the journal. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked using duplication-checking software. Where an article is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyrighted material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgment, or where authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action, including but not limited to publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article (removing it from the journal); taking up the matter with the head of the department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; banning the author from publication in the journal or in all SAGE journals; or taking appropriate legal action.

    Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures, or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. If authors are using their own work, they will still be required to obtain permission if they did not retain copyright of the previously published work.Papers will not be accepted for publication without the correct permissions. For further information, including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    Right of Reply

    The right of reply policy encourages comments on recently published articles in AERA publications. They are, of course, subject to the same editorial review and decision process as articles. If the comment is accepted for publication, the editor shall inform the author of the original article. If the author submits a reply to the comment, the reply is also subject to editorial review and decision. The editor may allot a specific amount of journal space for the comment (ordinarily about 1,500 words) and for the reply (ordinarily about 750 words). The reply may appear in the same issue as the comment or in a later issue (Council, June 1980).

    If an article is accepted for publication in an AERA journal that, in the judgment of the editor, has as its main theme or thrust a critique of a specific piece of work or a specific line of work associated with an individual or program of research, then the individual or representative of the research program whose work is critiqued should be notified in advance about the upcoming publication and given the opportunity to reply, ideally in the same issue. The author of the original article should also be notified. Normal guidelines for length and review of the reply and publication of a rejoinder by the original article’s author(s) should be followed. Articles in the format “an open letter to …” may constitute prototypical exemplars of the category defined here, but other formats may well be used, and would be included under the qualifications for response prescribed here (Council, January 2002).