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A Management Research Journal
Published in Association with Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad

eISSN: 23946083 | ISSN: 09718907 | Current volume: 28 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Bi-annually

Paradigm: A Management Research Journal (PAR-MRJ)- the journal published by the Institute of Management Technology (IMT), Ghaziabad.

Paradigm, the bi-annual peer-reviewed research journal of the Institute of Management Technology (IMT), Ghaziabad, has a strong publishing history of interdisciplinary interests and has successfully completed 25 years of existence. From 26th Volume onwards, we have renamed it ‘Paradigm: A Management Research Journal (PAR-MRJ).’ The focus of the journal from now will be on providing a platform for scholarly papers and case studies related to emerging markets from multifunctional and multidisciplinary perspectives. In the last 20 years, emerging markets have witnessed rapid economic development. These countries have become a major forum for testing existing models in developed countries and developing new models in emerging markets. PAR-MRJ is published by SAGE Publications.

The scope of publication encompasses all areas of multidisciplinary research in social sciences, including all branches of management sciences, psychology, economics, sociology, etc. It welcomes both theoretical and empirical academic articles from all disciplines of social sciences.

The following types of papers will be considered for publication:

1. Original research works, both theoretical and empirical in management and related discipline.,

2. Exhaustive surveys of literature, including bibliometric studies and meta-analyses.

3. Book review of a recently published, path-breaking book in management and related discipline.

This Journal is a Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) member.

PAR-MRJ is a peer-reviewed and bi-annual research journal of the Institute of Management Technology (IMT), Ghaziabad, associated with Sage Publications. It has strong publishing history and multidisciplinary interest and is considered one of the reputed journals in India and abroad. It publishes on a wide array of topics in social sciences, including in-depth studies of relevant issues that have practical implications.

Aims of the Journal:

· Being a multifunctional, multidisciplinary research journal PAR-MRJ aims to publish high-quality scholarly articles, both theoretical and empirical.

· PAR-MRJ aims to promote research that contributes to any theoretical domains in social sciences and provides insights that would be helpful for practitioners in formulating strategies.

Scope of the Journal:

The scope of publication encompasses all areas of multidisciplinary research in social sciences, including all branches of management sciences, psychology, economics, sociology, etc. It welcomes both theoretical and empirical academic articles from all disciplines of social sciences.

Papers in the following areas are largely considered for publication:

1. Marketing
2. Psychology
3. Finance
4. Economics
5. International Business
6. Information Technology and its uses in business
7. Environmental Studies
8. Human Resources
9. Management Strategy

Sita Mishra Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, India
Associate Editors
Dindayal Agrawal Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, India
Bindu Gupta Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, India
Imran Khan Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, India
Ritesh Pandey Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, India
Santosh Srivastava Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, India
Ashish Varma Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, India
Advisory Board
Abhijit Biswas Wayne State University, USA
Arkadev Chatterjea Cornell University, USA
Cheng Lu Wang University of New Haven, USA
G Shainesh Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore, India
Gert-Jan de Vreede University of South Florida, USA
K R Jayasimha Indian Institute of Management, Indore, India
Neharika Vohra Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India
Peter Naude Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
Sathyaprakash Balaji Makam The University of Nottingham Ningbo, China
Tazeeb S Rajwani University of Surrey, UK
Vanina Andrea Farber IMD School of Business, Switzerland
Yogesh K Dwivedi Swansea University, Wales, UK
Editorial Co-ordinator
Ruchi Kamra Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad, India
  • DeepDyve
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  • Indian Citation Index (ICI)
  • J-Gate
  • OCLC
  • Ohio
  • Portico
  • ProQuest Central
  • ProQuest Central Basic
  • ProQuest One Business
  • ProQuest: ABI/INFORM Collection
  • ProQuest: ABI/INFORM Global
  • ProQuest: Advanced Technologies & Aerospace Collection
  • ProQuest: Advanced Technologies & Aerospace Database
  • ProQuest: Materials Science Collection
  • ProQuest: Materials Science Database
  • ProQuest: SciTech Premium Collection
  • ProQuest: Technology Collection
  • Proquest: Business Premium Collection
  • Research Papers in Economics (RePEc)
  • Paradigm: A Management Research Journal

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    Paradigm is hosted on Sage Peer Review; a web based online submission and peer review system. Please read the Manuscript Submission guidelines below, and then visit to login and submit your article online.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Paradigm will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & scope
    1.2 Article types
    1.3 Writing your paper

    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy
    2.2 Authorship
    2.3 Acknowledgements
    2.4 Funding
    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    2.6 Research data

    3. Publishing policies

    3.1 Publication ethics
    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    4. Preparing your manuscript

    4.1 Formatting
    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    4.3 Supplemental material
    4.4 Reference style
    4.5 English language editing service

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    5.1 Information required for completing your submission
    5.2 Permissions

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage production
    6.2 Online first publication
    6.3 Access to your published article
    6.4 Promoting your article

    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & scope
    Before submitting your manuscript to Paradigm, please ensure you have read the ‘Aims & Scope’ of the journal

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    1.2 Article types
    There could be three to five segments in the journal, though two sub-sections from below unchanged section are mandatory.

    • Unchanged Sections
      • Research Articles: only the research articles are refereed.
      • Book Reviews: vary from number to number invariably guided by limits to the size of the manuscript
      • Industry Speak/Industry Note
    • Changed Sections
      • Communication/Discussion
      • Note
      • Review Article

    The manuscript should be accompanied by the following:

    1. The Abstract should be between 150 to 200 words.
    2. The abstract should have the following three key characteristics:

    i.    Research focus
    ii.    Methodology
    iii.    Main Findings

    Suggested sections for the main body of the manuscript

    1. Introduction

    2. Literature Review

    3. Research methodology/Model

    4. Results and findings

    5. Discussions & Conclusions

    6. Theoretical and managerial contribution 

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    1.3 Writing your paper
    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

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    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable
    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

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    2. Editorial policies
    2.1 Peer review policy


    Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    •  The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors

    •  The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper

    •  The author has recommended the reviewer

    •  The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution). 

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    2.2 Authorship
    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    If the named authors for a manuscript change at any point between submission and acceptance, an Authorship Change Form must be completed and digitally signed by all authors (including any added or removed) . An addition of an author is only permitted following feedback raised during peer review. Completed forms can be uploaded at Revision Submission stage or emailed to the Journal Editorial Office contact (listed on the journal’s manuscript submission guidelines). All requests will be moderated by the Editor and/or Sage staff.

    Important: Changes to the author by-line by adding or deleting authors are NOT permitted following acceptance of a paper.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

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    2.3 Acknowledgements
    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

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    2.3.1 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

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    2.4 Funding
    Paradigm requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

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    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    Paradigm encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the Sage Journal Author Gateway

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

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    2.6 Research data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

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    3. Publishing policies

    3.1 Publication ethics
    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

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    3.1.1 Plagiarism
    Paradigm and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of Paradigm against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

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    3.1.2 Prior publication
    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

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    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case, copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information, please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

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    3.3 Open access and author archiving
    Paradigm offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    Guidelines for Preparation of the Manuscript for Submission to Paradigm

    • A softcopy of the manuscript should be submitted in British-English, with MS Word format. The full length of a paper including text, tables, figures, references and appendices should be within 6000 to 9000 words. Book reviews should be between 1000-1500 words.
    • Chapter 2 in the APA Publication Manual offers detailed instructions on formatting the manuscript. We request all contributors to be familiar with it. A guide to preparation for manuscripts according to the latest APA style can be found here APA.
    • Any corresponding/submitting author of a full-fledged research article must submit at least 2 separate files – 1. Title page and 2. Anonymous manuscript file. The corresponding author must submit a title page comprising of the title of the article, all contributing authors’ names and other details (affiliations, mailing addresses, phone numbers, fax and email addresses). In case of multiple authors, the title page should also indicate the author to whom correspondence should be addressed. The title page should also contain brief bio (within 100 words) of each contributing author.
    • The manuscript file must be separated from the title page. The manuscript may contain article title, abstract, keywords, main body, tables, figures, references and appendices. The abstract should be between 150-200 words and accompanied by up to six key words. The name of the author(s) must not appear anywhere in the manuscript. The manuscript should have a margin of 1 inch on all four sides (with the margin on the left side flush at 1 inch, and the right margin “ragged”), and the entire paper should be set to double-space. The first line of each paragraph should be indented one-half inch. Paradigm requires that all submissions to use Times New Roman font, 12 font size with both sides aligned.
    • The latest APA Style Manual provides guidelines about headings in the text. While some papers have three level headings, others may have two. Tables and charts presented in the text should be in black and white only. They must meet latest APA guidelines. Wherever necessary, the title should be indicated at the top and sources should be at the bottom. They should be serially numbered and this number match with the references to them cited in the text. The tables, figures and charts need not appear in separate document files. The tables, figures and charts should appear in the appropriate places in the text only where they should appear.
    • References should be given separately at the end of the paper and the entries should be arranged alphabetically. The word ‘References’ should appear as a first-level heading. The list should include only the works the author(s) has cited.
    • Tables should be provided in editable format. Both tables and figures should be referred to in the text by number separately (e.g., Table 1) not by placement (e.g., see Table below).

    Please Note: All figures and tables should be cited in the text and should have the source (a specific URL, a reference or, if it is author’s own work, ‘The author(s)’) mentioned irrespective of whether or not they require permissions.

    • Figures, including maps, graphs and drawings, should not be larger than page size. They should be numbered and arranged as per their references in the text. All photographs and scanned images should have a resolution of minimum 300 dpi and 1,500 pixels and their format should be TIFF or JPEG. Permissions to reprint should be obtained for copyright protected photographs/images.
    • Mathematical formulae, methodological details, etc. should be given separately as an appendix, unless their mention in the main body of the text becomes essential.
    • Only essential mathematical notations should be used. All equations and statistical formulae should be neatly typed and numbered consecutively throughout the text in Arabic numerals. Equations must provided in the text must be in editable format.
    • The language and spellings used should be British (UK), with ‘z’ variant, for example, globalization instead of globalisation, labour instead of labor. For non-English and uncommon words and phrases, use italics throughout the text. Meaning of non-English words should be given in parentheses just after the word when it is used for the first time.
    • Articles should use non-sexist and non-racist language.
    • Spell out numbers from one to nine, 10 and above to remain in figures. However, for exact measurement (e.g., China’s GDP growth rate 9.8 per cent) use numbers. Very large round numbers, especially sums of money, may be expressed by a mixture of numerals and spelled-out numbers (India’s population 1.2 billion).
    • Single quotes should be used throughout. Double quote marks are to be used within single quotes. Spellings of words in quotations should not be changed. Quotations of 45 words or more should be separated from the text.
    • Notes should be numbered serially and presented at the end of each page. Notes must contain more than a mere reference. However, mere URLs may be incorporated in the endnotes.
    • Use ‘per cent’ instead of % in the text. In tables, graphs, etc., % can be used. Use ‘twentieth century’, ‘the 1990s’.
    • Number ranges should not be truncated, for example, 2017–2018.
    • The initials must be separated by dots and space in case of proper nouns in the text.
    • Abbreviations are spelled out at first occurrence. Very common ones (US, GDP, BBC) need not be spelled out.

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    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    • All photographs and scanned images should have a resolution of minimum 300 dpi/1500 pixels and their format should be TIFF or JPEG.
    • Due permissions should be taken for copyright protected photographs/images. Even for photographs/images available in the public domain, it should be clearly ascertained whether or not their reproduction requires permission for purposes of publishing (which is a profit-making endeavour).
    • All photographs/scanned images should be provided separately in a folder along with the main article.

    Please Note: All figures and tables should be cited in the text and should have the source (a specific URL, a reference or, if it is author’s own work, ‘The Author’) mentioned irrespective of whether or not they require permissions.

    • Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

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    4.3 Supplemental material
    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g., data sets, podcasts, videos, images, etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information, please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

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    4.4 Reference style
    Paradigm adheres to the APA reference style. View the APA guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    • References: A consolidated listing of all books, articles, essays, theses and documents referred to (including any referred to in the tables, graphs and maps) should be provided at the end of the article.
    • Arrangement of references: Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. In each reference, authors’ names are inverted (last name first) for all authors (first, second or subsequent ones); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work unless the work has more than six authors. If the work has more than six authors, list the first six authors and then use et al. after the sixth author’s name.
    • Chronological listing: If more than one work by the same author(s) is cited, they should be listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.
    • Sentence case: In references, sentence case (only the first word and any proper noun are capitalized—for example, ‘The software industry in India’) is to be followed for the titles of papers, books, articles, etc.
    • Title case: In references, Journal titles are put in title case (first letter of all words except articles and conjunctions are capitalized—e.g., Journal of Business Ethics).
    • Italicize: Book and Journal titles are to be italicized.

    Please Note: For each in-text citation there must be a corresponding reference in the reference list and for each reference there must be a corresponding in-text citation.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript
    Paradigm is hosted on Sage Track Sage, a web-based online submission and peer review system. Visit to login and submit your article online.

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    5.1 Information required for completing your submission
    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

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    5.2 Permissions
    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production
    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

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    6.2 Online First publication
    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

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    6.3 Access to your published article
    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

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    6.4 Promoting your article
    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information
    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Paradigm editorial office at the following address:


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