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United European Gastroenterology Journal

United European Gastroenterology Journal

Published in Association with United European Gastroenterology

eISSN: 20506414 | ISSN: 20506406 | Current volume: 8 | Current issue: 7 Frequency: 10 Times/Year
United European Gastroenterology Journal (UEG Journal) is the official Journal of the United European Gastroenterology (UEG), a professional non-profit organisation combining all the leading European societies concerned with digestive disease. UEG’s member societies represent more than 30,000 specialists working across medicine, surgery, paediatrics, GI oncology and endoscopy, which makes UEG Journal a unique platform for collaboration and the exchange of knowledge.

UEG Journal provides an international forum for research in gastroenterology, publishing original articles which describe basic research, translational and clinical studies of interest to gastroenterologists and researchers in related fields.
UEG Journal is editorially independent from the UEG.

To submit your manuscripts please visit Alternatively, you can contact the Editor Joost Drenth directly at or

The journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Visit the cutting-edge SAGE Journals platform to start reading UEG Journal issues now:

About United European Gastroenterology

UEG, or United European Gastroenterology, is a professional non-profit organisation combining all the leading European societies concerned with digestive disease. Together, their member societies represent over 30,000 specialists, working across medicine, surgery, paediatrics, GI oncology and endoscopy. This makes UEG the most comprehensive organisation of its kind in the world, and a unique platform for collaboration and the exchange of knowledge.

UEG is committed to:

  • Raising awareness and expanding knowledge of GI and liver diseases among the public and medical profession, to deliver benefits for patients
  • Coordinating the activities of clinical and scientific associations in our field
  • Harmonising and improving clinical standards across Europe
  • Fostering basic and clinical research in the field, and raising the profile of this work worldwide
  • Promoting and delivering excellence in clinical and scientific education.

To find out more please visit

To access our e-learning site please visit

Each year UEG run UEG Week. This conference attracts over 14,000 participants each year, from more than 124 countries. For five days every year, gastroenterologists come together from across Europe and the world, to meet and share ideas. In addition to covering basic science and clinical practice across the entire discipline, this special week provides a unique platform for exploring the latest research results, exchanging ideas, and learning new skills and techniques.

All delegates of UEG Week receive online access to the UEG Journal.

Providing an international forum for research in gastroenterology, this journal publishes original peer reviewed articles which describe basic research, translational and clinical studies of interest to gastroenterologists and researchers in related fields.

Articles from across all fields of gastroenterology are welcomed by the Editors, including luminal, liver and pancreatic diseases, endoscopy, gastrointestinal surgery, digestive oncology, as well as paediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. Published article types include original research, reviews, guidelines papers, and news items related to United European Gastroenterology. 

The journal is published 10 times a year in February, March, April, May, June, July, August, October, November, December, and is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Associate Editors
Dr Gabriele Capurso, MD, PhD Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Italy
Dr Fernando Magro, MD, PhD University of Porto, Portugal
Associate Professor Deirdre McNamara, MD, FRCP, FRCPI The University of Dublin, Ireland
Professor Alexander Meining, MD, PhD University Hospital Wurzburg, Germany
Professor Christophe Moreno, MD, PhD Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Professor Hidekazu Suzuki, MD, PhD, FACG, AGAF, RFF Tokai University School of Medicine, Japan
International Editors
Professor Qiang Cai, MD, PhD Emory University School of Medicine
Professor Alexander Engel, MD, PhD, FRACS, EBSQ The University of Sydney, Australia
Professor Max J. Schmulson, MD, RFF National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
Editorial Advisory Board
Professor Alberto Arezzo, MD, PhD University Hospital of Torino, Italy
Professor Marianna Arvanitakis, MD, PhD Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Professor Qasim Aziz, MD, PhD, FRCP Queen Mary University of London, UK
Dr Enrique De Madaria, MD, PhD Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Spain
Professor Marco Del Chiaro, MD, PhD, FACS University of Colorado, USA
Professor Pierre Deltenre, MD, PhD Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Associate Professor Kok Ann Gwee, MD, PhD, FAMS, FRCP National University of Singapore, Singapore
Dr Cesare Hassan, MD, PhD Nuovo Regina Margherita Hospital, Italy
Professor Richard Hunt, FRCP, FRCPC, MACG, MWGO McMaster University, Canada
Associate Professor John Kellow, MD, MBBS, FRACP The University of Sydney, Australia
Dr Guillaume Lassailly, MD Lille Regional University Hospital Centre, France
Professor Markus Lerch, MD, FRCP University of Greifswald, Germany
Dr Alessandra Mangia, MD Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Italy
Professor Albrecht Neesse, MD, PhD University Medicine Gottingen, Germany
Associate Professor Maria Papp, MD, PhD University of Debrecen, Hungary
Associate Professor Maria Pellisé, MD, PhD Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Spain
Dr María Jesús Perugorria, PhD University of the Basque Country, Spain
Professor Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, MD, PhD University Hospital of Nancy Gastroenterology and Inserm U954, France
Dr Roos Pouw, MD, PhD Amsterdam University Medical Center, The Netherlands
Vinciane Rebours University of Paris, and Beaujon Hospital, France
Dr. Lorenzo Ridola, MD, PhD Santa Maria Goretti Hospital, Latina, and Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Professor Jonas Rosendahl, MD, PhD University Hospital Halle, Germany
Associate Professor Cristiano Spada, MD, PhD Fondazione Poliambulanza, Brescia and Catholic University, Italy
Professor Vincenzo Stanghellini, MD University of Bologna, Italy
Professor Stephan Vavricka, MD Triemli Hospital, Switzerland
Professor Michael Wallace, MD Mayo Clinic, USA
Professor Cihan Yurdaydin, MD Koc University, Turkey
Professor Frank Zerbib, MD, PhD CHU Bordeaux, France
UEG Trainee Editors
Vicenzo Cardinale University Sapienza Of Rome, Italy
Milena Di Leo Humanitas Clinical and Research Centre, Italy
Julien Kirchgesner Saint Antoine Hospital, France
Laura Kivelä Tampere University Hospital, Finland
Keith Siau Royal College of Physicians, UK
Lucas Wauters University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: United European Gastroenterology Journal

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of United European Gastroenterology Journal will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that United European Gastroenterology Journal does not accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.7 Clinical trials
      2.8 Reporting guidelines
      2.9 Research Data
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission 
      4.1 Manuscript Preparation Checklist
      4.2 Title Page
      4.3 Abstract
      4.4 Introduction
      4.5 Materials and Methods
      4.6 Tables
      4.7 Figure Legends
      4.8 Figures
      4.9 Units, Symbols and Abbreviations
      4.10 Artwork, Figures and other Graphics Introduction
      4.11 Supplemental Material Introduction
      4.12 Reference Style
      4.13 English Language Editing Services 
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 Submitting a new manuscript through the online system
      5.2 Submitting a Revision
      5.3 ORCID
      5.4 Information required for completing your submission
      5.5 Permissions 
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 SAGE Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information
      7.1 Appealing the publication decision

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to United European Gastroenterology Journal, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article Types

    Please read the following carefully and ensure that your submission meets the requirements to avoid automatic return or delay in the consideration of your paper.

    If, after consulting the guidelines below, you wish to discuss your article before submission please contact the Editor-in-Chief, Joost PH Drenth via email at

    Published article types include original research, reviews, guidelines papers, editorials, letters and news items related to United European Gastroenterology. 

    Original Research Papers
    Original research papers should be no more than 3,000 words (excluding abstract, keywords, references, figures and table legends only, and the title page elements – including acknowledgement, COI and funding statements) and contain the following sections: Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Figure legends, Figures (see 'Preparing your manuscript for submission’ for more detailed instructions on how to format your manuscript ).

    The journal publishes a Key Summary alongside original research papers. The two points below require concise responses, presented in bullet points within the manuscript file between the Abstract and the Introduction. Please use a maximum of four bullet points to each response.

    1. Summarise the established knowledge on this subject
    2. What are the significant and/or new findings of this study?

    Review Papers
    Review papers focus on specific subjects of current interest where there have been recent and significant advances, ranging from basic neuroscience to clinical and more ‘applied’ areas. They are short, factual, focussed updates, comprising: Title page, an unstructured Abstract of 100-150 words, 5 or so Keywords, 2,500 words of text (excluding references), a limited number of relevant and recent references (up to 35 or so), and an illustrative figure if appropriate. See examples from the journal for more information.

    Editorials may be solicited by the Editor to address particular topics relating to one or more papers in a given issue. 

    Letter to the Editor

    Letters commenting on articles recently published in UEG are welcomed and will be considered for publication to the journal. For letters to be considered for publication the following must be met: 

    • Submission Deadline: Within 4 weeks of publication of the article in print 
    • Number of authors per letter: 3 (full name, email, affiliation and academic degrees of each author to be included). 
    • Word limit:400 words
    • References: up to 5 (One of these references must relate to the article being discussed). 
    • Unpublished data, duplication of previous published material or material in the process of publication should not be included.

    Letter in Reply 

    The Editors may send the letter to the authors of the original article for comment and both letter and reply may be published together.

    • Number of authors per reply: 3 
    • Word limit: 500 words
    • References: up to 6 


    UEG Journal publishes guidelines commissioned by UEG and groups under the UEG umbrella.


    Overview of the requirements for manuscript submissions to United European Gastroenterology Journal:

    Article Type Abstract Word Limit Main Text Word Limit  References Figures/Tables 
    Original Research Papers 300 3,000 Up to 35  Up to 7 
    Review Papers 100-150 2,500 Up to 50 Up to 5
    Guidelines Papers  500 5,000 Up to 50  Up to 5
    Editorials  N/A      
    Letters/ Correspondence  N/A     




    * Excludes references, tables and legends

    ** For reference style please see section 4.5


    1.3 Writing your paper

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable


    The Importance of Search Engines 

    Google and Google Scholar are the principal ways in which people will find your article online today. Between them they account for 60% of referral traffic to SAGE Journals Online. The search engine is now the first port of call for researchers and it is of paramount importance your article can be found easily in search engine results. SAGE continually works on Search Engine Optimization (SEO) to enhance discoverability to ensure the research we publish ranks highly in all the major search engines.  In addition, United European Gastroenterology Journal supports its authors with two Editors who assist with Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) of articles.  

    By taking some simple steps, you can assist us to further optimize your article for search engines - it will help your work to be discovered, read, used and cited in others’ work. 

    4 Steps to Optimize your Article for Search Engines:

    1. Get the Title Right

    • Make sure your title is accurate, succinct and reads well, and illustrates nicely the main finding of your paper- Try to keep your title short and unambiguous. 
    • Ensure the main keywords for your topic are in your article title- Remember people search on key phrases not just single words e.g. 'women's health' not health'. 
    • Avoid the use of abbreviations in the title and abstract.


    2. Focus your Abstract 

    • The better you write your abstract, the better chance you are giving your article to appear high up in the search results rankings.
    • Ensure that your keywords are in the first few sentences of your abstract- Search engines will use this information to pick out what’s important.  
    • Try to repeat the key descriptive phrases- Imagine the phrases a researcher might search for to find your paper. Focus on 3 or 4 key phrases in your abstract and use them several times to enhance impact. Google can detect abuse of this so don't overplay it. 
    • Keep the writing of your abstract natural and clear. 

    3. Choose your Keywords Carefully

    • Use Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords as well as others that are important in your field to help researchers find your work in search engines and other indexes such as PubMed.
    • Ensure your keywords flow naturally throughout your article- Try to use the same keywords throughout your article, including in headings.
    • Where more than one word or phrase (or abbreviation) is often used to describe the same thing, include both/all variants- e.g. drug names.

    4. Build Awareness and Climb up Search Results 

    • Promote your article across various networking sites- The more your article is linked to, and promoted by respected individuals and across social media, networking and institutional sites, the more likely search engines will highlight your content. See our guides for promoting your article to learn more:
    • Connect with the UEG community- Tag @UEGJournal and @my_UEG to help us share your work across the UEG network.

    Example of an article optimized for search engines

    This article comes out top in Google Scholar on a search of ‘depression folic acid’. These are words that researchers are likely to search on. These search terms are highlighted below so you can see the patterns of repeated phrases that Google looks at.

    Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12

    Alec Coppen 
    MRC Neuropsychiatric Research Laboratory, Epsom, Surrey, UK,

    Christina Bolander-Gouaille 
    Pharmacist, Helsingborg, Sweden

    We review the findings in major depression: of a low plasma and particularly red cell folate, but also of low vitamin B12 status. Both low folate and low vitamin B12 status have been found in studies of depression: patients, and an association between depression: and low levels of the two vitamins is found in studies of the general population. Low plasma or serum folate has also been found in patients with recurrent mood disorders treated by lithium. A link between depression: and low folate has similalrly been found in patients with alcoholism. It is interesting to note that Hong Kong and Taiwan populations with traditional Chinese diets (rich in folate), including patients with major depression:, have high serum folate concentrations. However, these countries have very low life time rates of major depression:. Low folate levels are furthermore linked to a poor response to antidepressants, and treatment with folic acid is shown to improve response to antidepressants. A recent study also suggests that high vitamin B12 status may be associated with better treatment outcome. Folate and vitamin B12 are major determinants of one-carbon metabolism, in which S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is formed. SAM donates methyl groups that are crucial for neurological function. Increased plasma homocysteine is a functional marker of both folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Increased homocysteine levels are found in depressive patients. In a large population study from Norway increased plasma homocysteine was associated with increased risk of depression: but not anxiety. There is now substantial evidence of a common decrease in serum/red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B12 and an increase in plasma homocysteine in depression:. Furthermore, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism that impairs the homocysteine metabolism is shown to be overrepresented among depressive patients, which strengthens the association. On the basis of current data, we suggest that oral doses of both folic acid (800 µg daily) and vitamin B12 (1 mg daily) should be tried to improve treatment outcome in depression.

    Key Words: cobalamin • depression: • diet • folate • folic acid • homocysteine • one carbon-metabolism • S-adenosylmethionine • vitamin B12

    Key Points to Note:

    • Clear and descriptive title including main key terms or phrases.
    • Abstract repeats key phrases in a contextually natural way.
    • Key terms or phrases repeated in keywords field.
    • Many other factors influence ranking but this content is written in a way that gives it the best chance.


    Example of an article that has not been optimized

    This article could not be found in Google Scholar after searching on a variety of phrases around the subject of the article, the representation of youth anti-war protests. The words highlighted below are the only terms repeated and these are unlikely to help someone researching this subject find this article via Google.

    Peace Children

    John Author
    Researcher, London, UK

    Debate over the role that young people should play in politics reflects different conceptions of childhood and adult concerns about loss of authority and political hegemony. Coverage of demonstrations against the Second Iraq War by the British national press echoes adult discourse on the nature of childhood and exposes the limits set on political activity. Analysis of news-text and images reveals concerns about the political competence of youth, their susceptibility to manipulation and the requirement for social control. Approval of youth’s right to protest was often conditional on the cause espoused.

    Key Words: childhood • Second Iraq War

    Key Points to Note:

    • The title is meaningless outside the context of the printed journal issue. It might appeal to people but it does not appeal to online search engines.
    • Title does not include key terms or phrases e.g. ‘youth anti-war protests’.
    • Abstract does not repeat key phrases used within title or article and presents Google with no patterns to look at.
    • Keywords play a reduced role in SEO but never the less they do have influence. Only two keywords are provided and the article’s key phrases are not listed.
    • Many other factors influence ranking but this content is written in a way that gives it a very poor chance of being found online through a search engine.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of two peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below: 

      • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
      • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
      • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    You will also be asked to nominate peers who you do not wish to review your manuscript (opposed reviewers).

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite/reject any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    United European Gastroenterology Journal is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for United European Gastroenterology Journal can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Make a substansial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content
    3. Approved the version to be published
    4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    [FOR SINGLE BLIND JOURNALS: Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.]

    [FOR DOUBLE BLIND JOURNALS: Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.]

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    United European Gastroenterology Journal requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of United European Gastroenterology Journal to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.
    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Manuscripts reporting data from research conducted on humans must include a statement of assurance in the methods section of the manuscript conforming to all four of the below points

    1. The study was approved by the ethical review board
    2. Name and date approval granted by the ethical board are included in the manuscript
    3. Written, informed consent was obtained from each patient included in the study
    4. The study protocol conforms to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki as reflected in a priori approval by the institution's human research committee

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The journal has adopted the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals published by the International Association of Veterinary Editors.

    2.7 Clinical trials

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human participants to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention and a health outcome. Interventions include but are not limited to drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, process-of-care charges, and the like. All manuscripts reporting clinical trials must include a copy of the trial protocol including the complete statistical analysis plan (if the manuscript is accepted, the protocol will be published as an online supplement), a flow diagram (CONSORT flow diagram), and a completed trial checklist (the CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found at The trial registration number must be included at the end of the abstract and on the title page of the manuscript reporting a registered clinical trial.

    Registration in a public trials registry is a condition for publication of clinical trials in United European Gastroenterology Journal in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME, recommendations.

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    2.9 Data

    SAGE acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process for academic journal articles.

    United European Gastroenterology Journal requests all authors submitting any primary data used in their research articles to be published in the online version of the journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The editor may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data. The Editor can also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations.

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    United European Gastroenterology Journal and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    United European Gastroenterology Journal offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Manuscript Preparation Checklist 

    • Title page (title, names of authors, affiliations, keywords, corresponding author)
    • Main document (includes structured abstract, main text, acknowledgements, references)
    • Tables (each as a separate Word document)
    • Figure legends (Word document)
    • Figures (as separate tiff, jpg or eps files)
    • Any supplementary files


    4.2 Title Page 

    The title should be concise with no abbreviations. Authors should also list other contributors or sources of funding here.

    4.3 Abstract 

    The second page of the manuscript must contain only the abstract, which should be of no more than 300 words for original research papers, 150 for review papers and y for guidelines papers.  Your abstract  must be clearly written and comprehensive to readers before they have to read the paper. An overview of the requirements for various article types can be found here. 

    The abstract should be structured according to the following sub headings: Background, Objective, Methods, Results and Conclusion. Abbreviations should be avoided and reference citations are not permitted.  Please see section 1.3.1 for details on how to optimise your abstract for discoverability and search engines.

    Any manuscripts submitted without a structured abstract will be returned to the author immediately without peer review, thus delaying the evaluation process of the manuscript.

    4.4 Introduction 

    The introduction should assume that the reader is knowledgeable in the field and be as brief as possible.

    4.5 Materials and Methods

    Methods that have been published in detail elsewhere should not be described in detail. Avoid unnecessary detailed descriptions of widely used techniques. SI Units should be used throughout the text. Reports of experiments involving patients and healthy volunteers must describe the steps taken to obtain consent and to maintain confidentiality. Experiments involving animals must conform to accepted ethical standards.

    4.6 Tables 

    Tables should be submitted in Word, typed on separate pages. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals, and cited as such in the manuscript.
    The preferred placing of tables in the main text should be indicated. Tables should include a brief descriptive title and be self-explanatory. Footnotes to tables indicated by lower-case superscript letters are acceptable, but they should not include extensive experimental details.

    4.7 Figure Legends 

    Please ensure that your figure legends are included in your manuscript, saved separately to the figures.  Figures will be published in black and white in the printed journal and in colour in the online version. Please ensure that your figure legends do not refer to colour in the figure (unless you are paying for your figures to appear in colour in the printed journal).

    4.8 Figures 

    Please submit figures as jpeg, tiff or eps files with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. All figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals and referred to in the text as Figure 1, etc. Please indicate the preferred placing of the figure in the main text. Figures are often reduced in size when appearing on the printed page. Allowance should be made for this when selecting text and symbol size. Symbols and keys should be given as a key on the figure, not in the legend. Magnification should be indicated by a scale bar on the photograph, not as a magnification factor in the legend.

    4.9 Units, Symbols and Abbreviations

    For detailed advice please refer to the guidelines in Baron, DN (1988). Units, symbols and abbreviations, 4th edn. (Obtainable from The Royal Society of Medicine, 1 Wimpole Street, London W1M 8AE, UK). Note that the SI system of units is preferred. Because of the multidisciplinary nature of the readership and to avoid confusion, the number of abbreviations in the text should be kept to a minimum. Standard abbreviations acceptable without definition are limited to the following:
    CNS (central nervous system); CSF (cerebrospinal fluid); DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid); HLA (human leukocyte antigen; MRI (magnetic resonance imaging); CT (computerized tomography); UEGJ (United European Gastroenterology Journal); RNA (ribonucleic acid). Non-standard definitions must be defined in full at their first usage in the abstract and again at their first use in the text.

    4.10 Artwork, Figures and other Graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.11 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files.

    4.12  Reference style

    United European Gastroenterology Journal adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference style. At least three authors should be listed before et al. View the SAGE Vancouver guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.
    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Vancouver EndNote output file. 

    4.13 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.


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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    United European Gastroenterology Journal is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    If, after following the guidelines below, you require additional assistance with your submission please contact

    5.1 Submitting a new manuscript through the online system:

    When making a submission, the following separate, unpaginated documents should be uploaded. The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway. Please do not submit one combined document. The separate files will be combined into a pdf in the online system.

    5.2 Submitting a Revision

    After review the editors may invite submission of a revised manuscript. When submitting a revision, delete the original files (as these are saved with your original submission), and upload your revised manuscript only, following the usual submission guidelines. Changes to the manuscript must be marked using highlighting or track changes, and the authors’ response to the reviewers’ comments should be placed in appropriate box during the submission process.
    The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point. Word and reference counts as outlined in Table 1 re initial submissions, should still be adhered to.

    5.3 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized. 

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more

    5.4 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.5 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the United European Gastroenterology Journal editorial office as follows:

    Professor Joost PH Drenth
    Head, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 
    Radboud UMC
    P.O. Box 9101
    6500 HB Nijmegen
    The Netherlands


    Business correspondence should be addressed to:

    United European Gastroenterology Journal 
    SAGE Publications Ltd.,
    1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road,
    London EC1Y 1SP, UK.
    Tel: +44-(0)20-7324-8500
    Fax: +44-(0)20-7324-8600

    For information on advertising, reprints and supplements please contact:
    Manuela Brun, Account Manager

    7.1 Appealing the publication decision

    Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are generally not eligible for formal appeal unless the author provides strong evidence or new data that can respond to and alleviate the concerns of the editor and reviewers.  The author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description, strong evidence, or new data they believe have emerged. The UEG journal will respond to a formal appeal and investigate whether key aspects of the submitted work have been overlooked or new arguments have come to light in the initial review phase.
    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at