About the Authors
Section I: Introduction
Chapter 1: Performance Appraisal: Research and Practice
Performance Appraisal: Historical Development and Present Status
Organization of this Book
Exercise: Can Organizations Manage Human Resources Without Performance Appraisal?
Chapter 2: Performance Management and Performance Appraisal
Why Study Performance Appraisal Rather Than Performance Management?
Performance Appraisal and Performance Management: Similarities and Differences
Human Resource Management, Strategic HRM, and Performance Management
Can Performance Management Be Simplified?
Can Performance Be Managed?
Challenges in Evaluating Performance Management
What Is the Role of Performance Appraisal in Performance Management?
Performance Appraisal, Performance Management, and Integrated HR Interventions
Analysis: From Strategy to Performance Goals
Chapter 3: Defining Job Performance
A General Model of Job Performance
The Distribution of Job Performance
Dimensions of Job Performance
Units of Analysis and Methods of Measurement
Objective Versus Subjective Measures of Performance
Analysis: Values and Validation—How the Definition of Performance Influences Conclusions Test Validity
Section II: The Performance Appraisal Process
Chapter 4: The Four Key Challenges to Performance Appraisal
The Structural Causes of Failure
Exercise: Maintain a Behavior Diary
Chapter 5: Obtaining Information and Evaluating Performance
Who Should Evaluate Performance
Cognitive Processes in Performance Evaluation
Liking and Emotion: Affective Influences on Performance Appraisal
Standards for Evaluating Performance
Exercise: Writing Performance Standards
Chapter 6: Rating Scales and Rater Training
Ranking as an Alternative to Rating
Exercise: Developing Behavior-Based Rating Scales
Chapter 7: How Context Influences Performance Appraisal
The Emergence of Context-Oriented Research
Case Study: Why Rank and Yank Failed at Microsoft
Chapter 8: How Organizations Use Performance Appraisal
The Purpose of Performance Appraisal
The Uses of Performance Appraisal
Informal Uses of Performance Appraisal: Downward and Upward Influence
Case Study: Even Terrorists Get Performance Appraisals—And Act on Them!
Section III: Challenges in Implementing and Evaluating Performance Appraisal Systems
Chapter 9: Giving and Receiving Feedback
The Definition and Purpose of Feedback
Why is Feedback Hard to Give and Receive?
Culture, Climate, and Feedback
The Effects of Feedback and Reactions to Feedback
Do Employees Want Feedback and Development?
Exercise: Evaluate Your Company’s Feedback Program
Chapter 10: Dealing with Reactions and Attitudes
Reactions to Appraisal Systems
How Reactions Affect Performance Appraisal Processes and Outcomes
Determinants and Effects of Reactions to Appraisal Systems
The Death Spiral of Appraisal Systems
Case Study: Understanding Resistance to Performance Appraisal
Chapter 11: Evaluating Performance Ratings
Do Raters Agree? The Reliability of Performance Ratings
Construct Validity of Performance Ratings
Conclusions About the Reliability, Validity, and Accuracy of Performance Ratings
Exercise: Analyze Rating Data
Chapter 12: Rater Goals and Rating Distortion
Why are Ratings Inflated?
Analyzing Performance Rating Strategies as a Choice Between Alternatives
Exercise: Build a Goal Assessment Tool
Section IV: Improving Performance Appraisal Systems
Chapter 13: The Performance Appraisal Debate
Getting Rid of Performance Appraisal?
We Can’t Get Rid of Performance Appraisal
Can Appraisal Systems be Saved?
Case Study: Can This Performance Appraisal System Be Saved?
Chapter 14: Building Better Performance Appraisal Systems
Improving Performance Appraisals
Make Appraisals Easier and Less Risky
Trust: The Essential Currency of Performance Appraisal
The Ethical Practice of Performance Appraisal
Case Study: Implementing a Performance Appraisal System
Appendix A: Rating Scale Formats