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Public Policy
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Public Policy
A Concise Introduction

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July 2018 | 352 pages | CQ Press
“A comprehensive textbook consisting of both historical and contemporary information and data about American public policy. The format and approach of the text are ideal for undergraduate students because they provide concrete examples of public policy in a way that relates to everyday life.”
  —Linda Trautman, Ohio University


Public Policy: A Concise Introduction is a student-friendly primer that quickly connects readers to the inner workings of public policy. The text condenses early chapters on theory and the policy-making process, allowing students to take up key policy challenges—such as immigration, education, and health care—much earlier in the semester. Structured chapter layouts of substantive policy areas allow instructors to supplement with their own examples seamlessly. The book’s emphasis on policy choices asks students to look beyond simple pros and cons to examine the multifaceted dimensions of decision making and the complexities inherent in real-world problem solving. Not every student starts out engaged in public policy, so place your students—both majors and non-majors alike—in the driver’s seat by fostering their analytical skills early, and spend the rest of the semester discussing policy issues, examining data, and debating current policy examples that matter most to them.

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List of Figures and Tables
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
SECTION I: DEFINING U.S. PUBLIC POLICYMAKING
 
CHAPTER ONE: The Foundation
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: Public Policy and Our Everyday Lives

 
Starting with a Definition

 
Power and Politics

 
A Federal System

 
Categories of Public Policy

 
The Process

 
A Motley Crew: Institutional and Noninstitutional Actors

 
The Three Branches of Government

 
The Implementers

 
The Media, Interest Groups, and Us

 
Shaping Policy

 
What about Us?

 
Policy Analysis

 
Policy Evaluation

 
Why Studying Public Policy Matters

 
Plan of the Book

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
Notes

 
 
CHAPTER TWO: The Policy Process and Policy Theories
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: Policy Rhetoric and Reality

 
What Really Is Policy?

 
Understanding the Context of Public Policy

 
The Political Environment

 
The Economic Environment

 
The Social and Cultural Environment

 
The Administrative Environment

 
The Quest for Public Policy Theory

 
The Stages Heuristic Model of Public Policymaking

 
Sugary Drinks

 
Stage 1: Problem Identification and Definition

 
Stage 2: Agenda Setting

 
Stage 3: Policy Formulation

 
Stage 4: Policy Legitimation

 
Stage 5: Policy Implementation

 
Stage 6: Policy Evaluation

 
Assessing the Stages Model

 
Alternative Policy Process Models

 
Multiple Streams Framework

 
Pros and Cons of the MSF

 
Punctuated Equilibrium

 
Actors in the Policy Process

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
 
SECTION II: THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC POLICY
 
CHAPTER THREE: Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: Up in Smoke: Federal and State Marijuana Policies Collide

 
Telling Stories with Data: Using Gallup Polling Data to Detect Trends

 
Overview of Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations

 
National Policymaking Constrained under the Articles of Confederation

 
Constitutional Foundation of Federalism

 
Intergovernmental Relations

 
Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations Evolve

 
Dual Federalism

 
Cooperative Federalism

 
Creative Federalism

 
Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations Today

 
Underfunded and Unfunded Mandates

 
Building Picket Fences

 
Increasing Capacity of State and Local Governments

 
Differences in State Cultures, Politics, Economies, and Events

 
Enduring Virtues of a Federal System

 
Safeguards Individual Rights and Democracy

 
Promotes Responsibility

 
Stimulates Innovation

 
Increases Efficiency and Effectiveness in Policy Implementation

 
Everyday Citizen Connection

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
 
CHAPTER FOUR: Rulemaking and Regulations
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: From Peanuts on a Plane to the Future of E-Cigarettes

 
Understanding the Context of U.S. Regulations

 
Defining Regulatory Policy

 
Delegation of Authority

 
Why Delegate?

 
Congress and Accountability

 
The President and Accountability

 
The Supreme Court and Accountability

 
Understanding Regulatory Processes

 
State Rulemaking

 
Influence and Participation

 
After a Rule Becomes a Law

 
Regulating Your Local Dry Cleaner

 
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

 
The Future of Regulatory Policy

 
Everyday Citizen Connection

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
Notes

 
 
SECTION III: UNDERSTANDING KEY PUBLIC POLICY ISSUES
 
CHAPTER FIVE: Economic Policy and Public Budgeting
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: Green Eggs and Ham and the Federal Government Shutdown in 2013

 
Overview of Economic Policy and Public Budgeting

 
Types of Economies and Economic Policy Definition Economic Theories

 
Size and Scope of the U.S. Economy

 
Public Opinion and the Economy

 
Telling Stories with Data: Using The Bureau of Labor Statistics to Explore Regional Economic Data

 
Monetary and Fiscal Policy

 
The Federal Budget

 
Budget Process

 
Government Revenues and Expenditures

 
Revenues

 
Expenditures

 
Debt and Deficit

 
History and Development of Economic Policy

 
Founding Period

 
Growth of Government Spending

 
Great Recession and Government Response

 
Major Economic Policy and Budgeting Statutes

 
Major Actors in Economic Policy

 
Congress

 
President

 
Government Agencies

 
Issues and Challenges

 
Political Polarization

 
Debts and Deficits

 
Global Markets and Free Trade

 
Everyday Citizen Connection

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Policy Choices: The Federal Tax System

 
Policy Choices: Federal Tax Policy

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
 
CHAPTER SIX: Crime and Public Policy
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: Guns on Campus: Safety or Risk?

 
Overview of Crime in America

 
Types of Crime

 
The U.S. Crime Rate

 
Explaining Decreases in the U.S. Crime Rate

 
Public Perceptions about Crime

 
The U.S. Incarceration Rate

 
History and Development

 
Federalizing Crime

 
Public Attitudes about the Incidence of Crime

 
Media and Crime

 
Actors in Criminal Justice Policy

 
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

 
State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies

 
Federal and State Courts

 
Crime Victims

 
Probation Officers and Parole Officers

 
Major U.S. Criminal Justice and Crime Policy Statutes

 
Capital Punishment

 
Issues and Challenges

 
Deterrence and Recidivism

 
Telling Stories with Data: The Death Penalty

 
Crime and Race

 
Juvenile Crime

 
Mass Shootings

 
Everyday Citizen Connection

 
Policy Choices: Gun Control

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
 
CHAPTER SEVEN: Education Policy
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: Behind the Curtain of a Public Education

 
Overview of U.S. Education Policy

 
Understanding the Structure of a U.S. Education Status and Scope

 
Telling Stories with Data: Using Maps to Explore Education Funding

 
History and Development of the U.S. Education System

 
Colonialism and Mann

 
Challenges and Change

 
Choice and a Digital Revolution

 
Major Education Policy Statutes

 
Major U.S. Education Laws

 
Major Actors in U.S. Education Policy

 
President

 
Congress

 
Courts

 
Bureaucracy

 
State Actors and Vested Interests

 
Governors and State Legislatures

 
State Expertise

 
Mayors, Superintendents, and Teachers

 
Interest Groups

 
What’s for Lunch?

 
Issues and Challenges

 
Paradigm Shift

 
Curriculum and Technology

 
Connecting the Dots

 
New Narrative

 
Everyday Citizen Connection

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Policy Choices: Student Evaluation

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
 
CHAPTER EIGHT: Civil Rights and Immigration Policy
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: The Desert and an Elusive Cat

 
Overview of Civil Rights

 
Civil Rights and Immigration

 
Status and Scope

 
Longitudinal Trends

 
Public Opinion Research

 
Immigration Sentiments

 
Telling Stories with Data: Using Gallup Polling Data to Detect Trends

 
History and Development of U.S. Immigration Policy

 
National Origin Quotas

 
Civil Rights, Amnesty, and Enforcement

 
9/11, Dreamers, and Deportation

 
Major U.S. Immigration Policy Statutes

 
Select Major U.S. Immigration Laws

 
The Actors in Immigration Policy

 
President

 
Congress

 
Courts

 
Bureaucracy

 
Unofficial Actors in Immigration Policy

 
States

 
The Immigration Posse and the ACLU

 
Issues and Challenges

 
Security and Crime

 
Sanctuary Cities and Refugees

 
Small Town USA

 
Everyday Citizen Connection

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Policy Choices: Immigration Reform

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
Notes

 
 
CHAPTER NINE: Social Welfare and Health Care Policy
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: Living on $2 a Day

 
Overview of Social Welfare Policy

 
Defining Poverty

 
Who Is Poor?

 
Telling Stories with Data: Using Census Data

 
Public Values and Types of Social Welfare Programs

 
Public Support for Social Welfare Programs

 
History and Development of U.S. Social Welfare Policy

 
Poor Houses and “Outdoor Relief”

 
The New Deal and Social Security

 
Unemployment Insurance and AFDC

 
The Great Society and Connecting Health Care to Social Welfare

 
Welfare Reform through TANF

 
Overview of Health Care Policy

 
Government-Run Insurance Programs: Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP

 
The Affordable Care Act and Beyond

 
Key Provisions of the ACA

 
History and Development of U.S. Health Care Policy

 
Early Efforts to Establish Health Care

 
Health Reform Efforts after the Great Depression

 
The 1960s through 2017: Government Steps In

 
ACA Repeal Attempts under President Trump

 
Major U.S. Social Welfare and Health Care Statutes

 
Select Major U.S. Social Welfare and Health Care Laws

 
Major Actors in Social Welfare and Health Care Policy

 
The President

 
Congress

 
Courts

 
Federal Bureaucracies

 
State Governments

 
Unofficial Actors

 
Issues and Challenges

 
Income Inequality

 
The High Health Cost of Being Poor

 
Universal Health Care Coverage and Single-Payer Health Care

 
Everyday Citizen Connection

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Policy Choices: Social and Welfare Policy—Family Leave

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
 
CHAPTER TEN: Environmental and Energy Policy
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: A Web of Actors When Disaster Strikes

 
Overview of Environmental and Energy Policy

 
Understanding U.S. Environmental Policy

 
Status and Scope

 
Telling Stories with Data: Using U.S. Epa Air Quality Trends Data

 
History and Development of Environmental Policy

 
Birth of the Modern Environmental Movement (1960s and 1970s)

 
Changing Course (1980s)

 
Diffused Attention in the 1990s and Early 2000s

 
Executive Action in the 2010s

 
Understanding U.S. Energy Policy

 
Status and Scope

 
History and Development of Energy Policy

 
Crisis in the 1970s

 
Deregulation in the 1980s

 
Toward a Comprehensive Energy Policy in the 1990s

 
Energy and National Security Concerns in the 2000s

 
Major Environmental and Energy Policy Statutes

 
Major Actors in Environmental and Energy Policy

 
Congress

 
President

 
Federal Courts

 
Executive Agencies

 
Interest Groups and Lobbyists

 
Greenhouse Gases Go to Court

 
Issues and Challenges

 
Lack of a Coherent, Cohesive Policy

 
Politicization

 
Role of Science in Policy Debates

 
Trade-offs between the Environment and the Economy

 
The Commons

 
Everyday Citizen Connection

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Policy Choices: Nonpoint Source Pollution

 
Policy Choices Reflection Questions

 
Policy Choices: Nonpoint Source Water Pollution

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
 
CONCLUSION: Public Policy: A Concise Introduction
Learning Objectives

 
Opening Vignette: On the Front Lines

 
Putting the Pieces Together

 
A Dynamic Enterprise

 
Why Public Policy Matters

 
Public Problems and Solutions

 
Finding the Facts

 
Consensus and Public Policy

 
Concluding Thoughts

 
Glossary Terms

 
Discussion Questions

 
Suggested Resources

 
Glossary

 
 
References
 
Index

Supplements

Student Resource Site
  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically
  • Video and multimedia links that appeal to students with different learning styles
Instructor Resource Site
  • Test banks provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to assess students’ progress and understanding
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to help you prepare for lectures and class discussions.
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring one’s course
  • Chapter-specific discussion questions help launch classroom interaction by prompting students to engage with the material and by reinforcing important content.
  • Lively and stimulating chapter activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group projects.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically
  • Video and multimedia links that appeal to students with different learning styles

“I like the progression of practical examples, public policy issues, and dynamics that position students to conceptualize both intellectually and academically. To be specific, Chapter 1 has established a foundation to enable the student to not just regurgitate facts but to invoke public policy facts to advance vibrant policy positions of their own.”

Mary D. Bruce
Governors State University

“A comprehensive textbook consisting of both historical and contemporary information and data about American public policy. The format and approach of the text are ideal for undergraduate students because they provide concrete examples of public policy in a way that relates to everyday life.”

Linda Trautman
Ohio University

“I think the features are fantastic and well placed in this textbook. I particularly like the chapter-opening vignettes, Everyday Citizen Connections, and Policy Choices feature. I think these make the text more accessible to students and generate more real student learning than a text that just presents the material in a static manner.” 

Laura Fidelie
Midwestern State University

I really enjoyed the federalism chapter and it will be used in my future classes.

Dr Rhucha Samudra
Public Administration Dept, Suny College At Brockport
September 26, 2018
Key features

KEY FEATURES:

  • Chapter-opening vignettes consider current examples of public policy in action, such as what life is like living on less than $2 a day in America, the legalization of marijuana by several states, and gun violence on campus, and connect readers to broader concepts. 
  • Learning Objectives preview the key points students need to learn in each chapter. 
  • Telling Stories with Data boxes invite students to evaluate data in order to decipher their impact on a particular policy issue or dilemma. 
  • Policy Choices sections challenge students to think about the policy alternatives available— beyond the simplistic for-or-against approach so often conveyed in the media and public dialogue—encouraging them to think about potential remedies to important policy questions and the consequences of those choices. 
  • Everyday Citizen Connection features that link theory to practice illustrate how people are affected by public policy and show students how they can engage in policy issues that matter to them.
 

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