# Straightforward Statistics

- Chieh-Chen Bowen - Cleveland State University, USA

**Straightforward Statistics**is written in plain language and connects material in a clear, logical manner to help students across the social and behavioral sciences develop a “big picture” understanding of foundational statistics. Each new chapter is purposefully connected with the previous chapter for a gradual accrual of knowledge from simple to more complex concepts—this effective, cumulative approach to statistics through logical transitions eases students into statistics and prepares them for success in more advanced quantitative coursework and their own research.

**Available with**

**Perusall****—an eBook that makes it easier to prepare for class**

*Perusall*is an award-winning eBook platform featuring social annotation tools that allow students and instructors to collaboratively mark up and discuss their SAGE textbook. Backed by research and supported by technological innovations developed at Harvard University, this process of learning through collaborative annotation keeps your students engaged and makes teaching easier and more effective. Learn more.

What Is Statistics? |

Population Versus Sample |

Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics |

Sampling a Population |

Random Sampling Methods |

Simple Random Sampling |

Systematic Sampling |

Stratified Sampling |

Cluster Sampling |

Scales of Measurement |

Nominal Scale |

Ordinal Scale |

Interval Scale |

Ratio Scale |

Variable Classifications |

Discrete Versus Continuous Variables |

Independent Variables Versus Dependent Variables |

Required Mathematical Skills for This Course |

Statistical Notation |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions When Needed |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Frequency Distribution Table |

Organizing and Summarizing Categorical Variables |

Organizing and Summarizing Numerical Variables |

Graphs |

Bar Graphs and Histograms |

Pie Charts |

Common Distribution Shapes |

Uniform Distribution |

Normal Distribution |

Skewed Distribution |

EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction for Calculating ?X from Frequency Table and Constructing a Bar Graph |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Measures of Central Tendency |

Mode |

Median |

Mean |

Measures of Variability |

Range |

Variance and Standard Deviation for a Population |

Variance and Standard Deviation for a Sample |

Boxplot: 5-Number Summary |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Standard Z Scores |

Z Scores for a Population |

Z Scores for a Sample |

Empirical Rule for Variables With a Normal Distribution |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Basic Terms and Mathematical Operations in Probability |

Basic Terms in Probability |

Mathematical Operations for Probabilities |

Binomial Probability Distribution |

Practical Probability Application: Winning the Mega-Million Lottery |

The Dice Game |

Linkage Between Probability and Z Score in Normal Distribution |

Probabilities, Z Scores, and Raw Scores |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Sampling Error |

Sampling Distribution of the Sample Means and the Central Limit Theorem |

The Law of Large Numbers |

Relationships Between Sample Means and the Population Mean |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Type I Error and Type II Error |

The Four-Step Process to Conduct a Hypothesis Test |

Step 1: Explicitly State the Pair of Hypotheses |

Step 2: Identify the Rejection Zone for the Hypothesis Test |

Step 3: Calculate the Test Statistic |

Step 4: Make the Correct Conclusion |

Examples of the Four-Step Hypothesis Test in Action |

Directional Versus Non-Directional Hypothesis Testing |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

The Unknown Sigma and Conducting the One-Sample t Test |

The t-Distribution, a Specific Curve for Every Degree of Freedom |

Confidence Intervals |

Point Estimate |

Interval Estimate |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions With EXCEL Step-by-Step Instructions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Introducing Independent Samples and the Decision Rule on Equal Variances |

Decision Rule for Equal Variances Assumed Versus Equal Variances Not Assumed |

Equal Variances Assumed |

Equal Variances Not Assumed |

Using SPSS to Run Independent-Samples t Tests |

Confidence Intervals of the Mean Difference |

Effect Sizes |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Introducing Dependent-Sample t Tests |

Calculations and the Hypothesis-Testing Process in Dependent-Sample t Tests |

Mean, Standard Deviation, and Standard Error of the Differences |

Hypothesis Testing for Dependent-Sample t Tests |

Confidence Interval of the Differences |

Effect Size for the Dependent-Sample t Test |

Using SPSS to Run Dependent-Sample t Tests |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Pearson’s Correlation |

Pearson’s Correlation Formulas |

Describing and Interpreting Pearson’s r |

Showing the Pearson’s Correlation in Action |

Hypothesis Testing for the Pearson’s Correlation |

Interpretations and Assumptions of Pearson’s Correlation |

Interpretations of Pearson’s Correlation |

Assumptions of Pearson’s Correlation |

Special Types of Correlation |

Spearman’s Rank Correlation |

Partial Correlation Formula |

Point Biserial Correlation |

EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction for Constructing a Scatterplot |

EXCEL Step-by-Step Instruction on Calculating Pearson’s r |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Y-Intercept and Slope |

Hypothesis Testing With Simple Regression |

Standard Error of the Estimate |

The Mathematical Relationship Between Pearson’s r and the Regression Slope, b |

Assumptions for Simple Regression |

Step-by-Step Instructions on SPSS |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

Introducing ANOVA |

Between-Group Variance and Within-Group Variance |

Sum of Squares Between |

Sum of Squares Within |

Degrees of Freedom for Between Groups (dfB) and Within Groups (dfW) |

Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA |

Post Hoc Comparisons |

Statistical Assumptions of an ANOVA |

Effect Size for One-Way ANOVA |

Step-by-Step Instructions for Using SPSS to Run an ANOVA |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

What You Know and What Is New |

The Chi-Square |

Expected Frequency |

Expected Frequency Under a One-Way Frequency Table |

Expected Frequency Under a Two-Way Contingency Table |

Goodness-of-Fit Tests |

Hypothesis Testing With the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test |

Chi-Square for Independence |

Hypothesis Testing With the Chi-Square Test for Independence |

Exercise Problems |

Solutions |

Chapter Resources |

What You Learned |

Key Words |

Learning Assessment |

### Supplements

**Calling all instructors!**

It’s easy to log on to SAGE’s password-protected Instructor Teaching Site at http://edge.sagepub.com/bowen** **for complete and protected access to all text-specific Instructor Resources for *Straightforward Statistics. *Simply provide your institutional information for verification and within 72 hours you’ll be able to use your login information for any SAGE title!

** **** SAGE edge for Instructors** supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

- A
**Course cartridge**provides easy LMS integration **Test banks**provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding- Editable, chapter-specific
**PowerPoint**offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course^{®}slides **Sample course syllabi**for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring one’s course**Multimedia content**appeals to students with different learning styles

__SAGE edge____ for Students__

**provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.**

- Mobile-friendly
**eFlashcards**strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts - Mobile-friendly practice
**quizzes**allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material - A complete online
**action plan**allows you to track your progress and enhance your learning experience **Learning objectives**help reinforce the most important material**Multimedia content**appeals to students with different learning styles

“This book does an admirable job of presenting the rationale for the formulas, which should help the student understand the material more deeply. Additionally, the examples used by the author do a nice job of helping students walk through the process of applying the formulas to address research hypotheses.”

**Case Western Reserve University**

“I have been impressed with the author’s ability to explain statistical constructs in a straightforward manner.”

**New Jersey City University**