Virology Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed open access journal that focuses on all aspects of viruses and including human, animal, insect, plant, and bacterial and fungal viruses. Please see the Aims and Scope tab for further information.
This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
Why publish in VRT?
· Indexed in: PubMed Central , DOAJ, EBSCO & Scopus
· Rigorous peer review of your research
· Open access format, driving high visibility and global exposure
· Prompt online publication
Submit your manuscript today at https://peerreview.sagepub.com/VRT
Please see the Submission Guidelines tab for more information on how to submit your article to the journal.
Open access article processing charge (APC) information
The APC for this journal is currently $1,848 USD
The APC is payable only if your article is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Tax-exempt status can be indicated by providing appropriate registration numbers when payment is requested. Please see further details here.
Please direct any queries to Hemali.Bedi@sagepub.co.uk
* The article processing charge (APC) is payable when the manuscript is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Tax-exempt status can be indicated by providing appropriate registration numbers when payment is requested. Please see further details here.
Virology: Research and Treatment is an international, open access, peer reviewed journal which considers manuscripts on all aspects of viruses. All articles on human, animal, insect, plant, and bacterial and fungal viruses are considered.
• Virus Structure
• Virus-Host Interactions
• Regulation of Viral Gene Expression
• Virus Replication
• Viral Genomics and Proteomics
• Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution
• Viral Pathogenesis
• Anti-viral Research
• Vaccine Development
Virology: Research and Treatment seeks to be one of the world’s premier open access outlets for virology research. All articles on human, animal, insect, plant, and bacterial and fungal viruses are considered. Papers are subjected to rigorous peer review and selected on the basis of sound scientific work, high ethical standards, and written clarity.
|Juliet V. Spencer||Texas Woman's University, USA|
|Michael Bukrinsky MD||George Washington University, Washington, D.C., USA|
|Preet M. Chaudhary||Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, California, USA|
|Ashok Chauhan PhD||University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, USA|
|Wuguo Chen PhD||School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA|
|Alexander M. Cole PhD||University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Florida, USA|
|Ronald G. Collman MD||University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Robert William Finberg MD||University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA|
|Michael Gale Jr PhD||University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA|
|Patrick L. Green PhD||Center for Retrovirus Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA|
|Young S. Hahn PhD||University of Virginia School of Medicine, Virginia, USA|
|Ronald N. Harty PhD||University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Johnny J. He PhD||University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA|
|Andrew J. Henderson PhD||Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA|
|Wen-Zhe Ho MD||Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Helen Horton PhD||Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA|
|Edward M. Johnson PhD||Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia, USA|
|Jason T. Kimata PhD||Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Texas, USA|
|Judith Marchand Ball PhD||Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA|
|Stephen D. Miller PhD||Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA|
|John Mittler PhD||University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA|
|Jay A. Nelson PhD||Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA|
|B. Matija Peterlin MD||University of California, San Francisco, California, USA|
|Jay A. Rappaport PhD||Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Ratna B. Ray PhD||Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA|
|Moriya Tsuji PhD, MD||Rockefeller University, New York City, New York, USA|
|Robert J. Visalli PhD||Mercer School of Medicine, Savannah Campus, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Savannah, Georgia, USA|
|Tuofu Zhu PhD||University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA|
Table of Contents:
1. Open Access
2. Article processing charge (APC)
3. What do we publish?
3.1 Aims & scope
3.2 Article types
3.3 Writing your paper
4. Editorial policies
4.1 Peer review policy
4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
4.7 Clinical trials
4.8 Reporting guidelines
5. Publishing policies
5.1 Publication ethics
5.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
6. Preparing your manuscript
6.1 Word processing formats
6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
6.3 Supplementary material
6.4 Reference style
6.5 English language editing services
7. Submitting your manuscript
7.1 How to submit your manuscript
7.2 Title, keywords and abstracts
7.3 Information required for completing your submission
8. On acceptance and publication
8.1 SAGE Production
8.2 Online publication
8.3 Promoting your article
9. Further information
This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Please read the guidelines below then visit the journal’s submission site http://peerreview.sagepub.com/VRT to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.
Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Virology: Research and Treatment will be reviewed. As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.
Virology: Research and Treatment may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy.
If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.
Virology: Research and Treatment is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution or author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.
If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.
The APC for this journal is currently 1848 USD*.
*If the paying party is based in the European Union, to comply with European law, value added tax (VAT) must be added to the APC. Providing a VAT registration number will allow an institution to be exempt from paying this tax, except for UK institutions.
Before submitting your manuscript to Virology: Research and Treatment, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.
Case Report Case reports present interesting or unusual examples of disease, side effects, symptoms, treatments, pathogenesis, or unusual circumstances in medicine and healthcare. Articles can be accompanied by pictures if necessary—these require informed patient consent to publish—and should contribute to the existing literature on the condition they report on. Manuscripts must present out of the ordinary cases.
Commentary Commentaries discuss the findings, implications, and/or outcomes of specific research or wider research on a general topic. They elaborate on or offer original ideas about a specific paper or a widely-researched subject. Commentaries differ from reviews in that they present the author’s original ideas and suggestions instead of only collating and reporting the previous research.
Editorial Written by the Editor-in-Chief, deputy Editor-in-Chief, Guest Editor or Associate Editor of a journal, editorials are intended to inform readers of changes concerning the journal, or to introduce supplements, special issues, or new ideas relevant to the journal. In limited circumstances individuals other than the individuals listed here may propose an editorial topic if they wish.
Letter to the Editor Letters to the editor can be submitted on any topic relevant to the journal and are usually in response to an article published in the journal. They can suggest new subjects to be incorporated by the journal or commend and review papers published in the journal. We recommend that individuals considering submitting a letter to the editor should contact the editor in chief first to discuss their manuscript.
Meeting Report This manuscript type reports on a meeting with specific relevance to the journal it is submitted to. Meetings can be international or national conferences or institutional seminars.
Original Research These should detail original experiments/research conducted by the authors. Any research on any topic is accepted, provided it falls within the aims and scope of the journal. Original research must add to scientific knowledge on the subject and must be completed in accordance with ethical principles. Research on humans or animals must have applicable ethical approvals. Manuscripts should be approximately 3,000 words and include a structured abstract (max. 350 words).
Review A review is a detailed examination including the benefits and drawbacks of a medicine, therapeutic technique, computer program, policy, or anything else appropriate to the journal. They are substantially composed of a report on previous research. Authors wishing to present original ideas in addition should choose the Commentary type. All journals accept unsolicited review manuscripts for peer review. Manuscripts should be no longer than approximately 5,000 words excluding references.
Short Report Short reports present new research that adds to previous studies. This can be reporting on the reliability or unreliability of research or informing readers of new factors that may influence the outcome of the study. Authors must acknowledge the work they build upon including any unpublished sources. Manuscripts should be no longer than approximately 1,000 words excluding references.
Technical Advance A broad-scoped category of manuscript reporting an advance within the journal's scope. New procedures, experiments, standard practices, or computational methods should be presented in technical advance articles. They report on significant advancements in technology that the reader will benefit from learning about.
The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.
3.3.1 Making your article discoverable
For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online
Following a preliminary triage to eliminate submissions unsuitable for Virology: Research and Treatment all papers are sent out for review. The covering letter is important. To help the Editor in his preliminary evaluation, please indicate why you think the paper suitable for publication. If your paper should be considered for fast-track publication, please explain why.
The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by two expert reviewers. Virology: Research and Treatment utilizes a single-blind peer review process in which the reviewer’s name and information is withheld from the author All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Editor-in-Chief who then makes the final decision.
As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of two peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:
- The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
- The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
- Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted
You will also be asked to nominate peers who you do not wish to review your manuscript (opposed reviewers).
Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.
The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor / Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.
Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors. The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:
(i) Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
(ii) Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
(iii) Approved the version to be published,
(iv) Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.
4.3.1 Third party submissions
Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:
- Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
- Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
- Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.
Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.
4.3.2 Writing assistance
Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.
Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.
Virology: Research and Treatment requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Virology: Research and Treatment encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.
It is the policy of Virology: Research and Treatment to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.
Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.
For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.
4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.
Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.
For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.
Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.
Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants
All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The journal has adopted the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals published by the International Association of Veterinary Editors.
Virology: Research and Treatment conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.
The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.
Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.
SAGE acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process for academic journal articles.
Virology: Research and Treatment requests all authors submitting any primary data used in their research articles alongside their article submissions to be published in the online version of the journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The editor may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data. The editor can also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations. For further information, please contact the editorial office at [Neisha.Jobanputra@sagepub.co.uk].
SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.
Virology: Research and Treatment and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.
5.1.2 Prior publication
If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.
Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Virology: Research and Treatment publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC), which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit SAGE's OA licenses page.
Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.
The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.
For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines
Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.
This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. These will be subjected to peer-review alongside the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files, which can be found within our Manuscript Submission Guidelines page.
Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.
To submit your manuscript to Virology: Research and Treatment, please visit the manuscript submission site http://peerreview.sagepub.com/VRT and ensure that references are formatted with AMA reference style.
Please supply a title, short title, an abstract and keywords to accompany your article. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting the SAGE Journal Author Gateway for guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.
Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.
You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).
Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.
As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.
The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID iD to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications. Please note that only ORCID iDs validated prior to article acceptance will be authorized for publication, and ORCID iDs cannot be added or amended at a later stage.
If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the contributor’s publishing agreement. Once your manuscript files have been checked for SAGE Production, the corresponding author will be asked to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link. Once the APC has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and can appear online within an average of 30 days. Please note that no production work will occur on your paper until the APC has been received.
Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit, or by email to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorizing the change.
One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.
Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.
Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the Manuscript Submission process should be sent to the Virology: Research and Treatment editorial office as follows: