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An Introduction to Statistics
An Active Learning Approach

Third Edition

- Kieth A. Carlson - Valparaiso University, USA
- Jennifer R. Winquist - Valparaiso University, USA

January 2021 | 512 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

This updated and reorganized

**Third Edition**of this textbook takes a workbook-style approach that encourages an active approach to learning statistics. Carefully placed reading questions throughout each chapter allow students to apply their knowledge right away, while in-depth activities based on current behavioral science scenarios, each with problem sets and quiz questions, give students the opportunity to assess their understanding of concepts while reading detailed explanations of more complex statistical concepts. Additional practice problems further solidify student learning. Most activities are self-correcting, so if a concept is misunderstood, this misunderstanding is corrected early in the learning process. After working through each chapter, students are far more likely to understand the material than when they only read the material.Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Authors

Part 1: Descriptive Statistics and Sampling Error

Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics and Frequency Distributions

How to Be Successful in This Course

Math Skills Required in This Course

Statistical Software Options

Why Do You Have to Take Statistics?

The Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

Populations and Samples

Independent and Dependent Variables

Identify How a Variable Is Measured

Graphing Data

Shapes of Distributions

Frequency Distribution Tables

Chapter 2: Central Tendency and Variability

Frequency Distribution Graphs and Tables

Central Tendency: Choosing Mean, Median, or Mode

Computing Measures of Central Tendency

Variability: Range or Standard Deviation

Steps in Computing a Population’s Standard Deviation

Steps in Computing a Sample’s Standard Deviation

Constructing a Scientific Conclusion

Chapter 3: z scores

Computing and Interpreting z for a Raw Score

Finding Raw Score “Cut Lines”

Finding the Probability of z Scores Using the Standard Normal Curve

Positive z Score Example

Negative z Score Example

Proportion Between Two z Scores Example

Chapter 4: Sampling Error and Confidence Intervals with z and t Distributions

Sampling and Sampling Error

The Central Limit Theorem and the Standard Error of the Mean (SEM)

Applying the SEM to Find Statistical Evidence

Part 2: Applying the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning to Mean Differences

Chapter 5: Single sample t, effect sizes, and confidence intervals

Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

Apply the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

Chapter 6: Related samples t, effect sizes, and confidence intervals

Related Samples t Test

Logic of the Single Sample and Related Samples t Tests

Apply the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

Chapter 7: Independent samples t, effect sizes, and confidence intervals

When to Use the Three t Tests

The t Test Logic and the Independent Samples t Formula

Apply the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

How to Interpret High p Values

Chapter 8: One-way ANOVA, effect sizes, and confidence intervals

Independent Samples One-Way ANOVA

Logic of the ANOVA

Apply Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

Chapter 9: Two-way ANOVA, effect sizes, and confidence intervals

Purpose of Two-Way ANOVA

Logic of Two-Way ANOVA

Apply Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

Part 3: Applying the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning to Associations

Chapter 10: Correlations, effect sizes, and confidence intervals

When to Use Correlations

The Logic of Correlation

Interpreting Correlation Coefficients

Spearman’s (rs) Correlation

Correlation Does Not Equal Causation: True but Misleading

Apply the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

Chapter 11: Chi square and effect sizes

When to Use X2 Statistics

Logic of the X2 Test

Apply the Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

Apply the Pillars of Scientific Reasoning: X2 for Independence

Appendices

References

Index

### Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

The LMS cartridge makes it easy to import this title’s instructor resources into your learning management system (LMS). These resources include:

You can still access all of the same online resources for this title via the password-protected Instructor Resource Site.

**edge.sagepub.com/carlson3e**

For additional information, custom options, or to request a personalized walkthrough of these resources, please contact your sales representative.For additional information, custom options, or to request a personalized walkthrough of these resources, please contact your sales representative.

**LMS cartridge included with this title for use in Blackboard, Canvas, Brightspace by Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle**The LMS cartridge makes it easy to import this title’s instructor resources into your learning management system (LMS). These resources include:

- Test bank
- Editable chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides
- Answers to the textbook’s Reading Questions
- Answers to the textbook’s Activity Questions
- Additional Practice Tests and Answers
- All tables and figures from the textbook

**Don’t use an LMS platform?**You can still access all of the same online resources for this title via the password-protected Instructor Resource Site.

Student study site

The open-access Student Study Site makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime. It offers flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, as well as learning objectives that reinforce the most important material.

**edge.sagepub.com/carlson3e**The open-access Student Study Site makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime. It offers flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, as well as learning objectives that reinforce the most important material.

### Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics and Frequency Distributions

Chapter 2: Central Tendency and Variability