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Anthropology
A Global Perspective

Ninth Edition


January 2020 | 656 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Now with SAGE Publishing!

Using both classic and current, state-of-the-art research, Anthropology: A Global Perspective introduces students to the subfields of anthropology—biological anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and cultural anthropology. Integrating historical, biological, archaeological, and global approaches with ethnographic data from around the world, this comprehensive text is founded on four essential themes: the diversity of human societies; the similarities that tie all humans together; the interconnections between the sciences and humanities; and a new theme that explores the importance of reducing essentialist beliefs. Authors Raymond Scupin and Christopher R. DeCorse use an applied perspective to demonstrate how anthropologists use research techniques and methods to help solve practical problems, showing students how anthropology is relevant to improving human societies. The extensively revised Ninth Edition includes a new chapter on gender and sexuality, features a dramatically new look with new photos and figures, and has been updated to reflect the most recent findings in the field.


 
Part 1: Basic Concepts in Anthropology
 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Anthropology
Anthropology: The Four Subfields

 
Holistic Anthropology, Interdisciplinary Research, and the Global Perspective

 
Anthropological Explanations

 
Humanistic Interpretive Approaches in Anthropology

 
Why Study Anthropology?

 
 
Chapter 2: The Record of the Past
Answering Questions

 
Paleoanthropological Study

 
Archaeological Research

 
Locating Sites and Fossil Localities

 
Archaeological Excavation

 
Dating Methods

 
Interpreting the Past

 
 
Chapter 3: Evolution
Cosmologies and Human Origins

 
The Scientific Revolution

 
Theory of Evolution

 
Principles of Inheritance

 
Inheritance and Molecular Genetics

 
Population Genetics and Evolution

 
How Do New Species Originate?

 
The Evolution of Life

 
 
Part 2: Biological Anthropology
 
Chapter 4: The Primates
Primate Characteristics

 
Classification of Primates

 
Evolution of the Primate Order

 
Primate Behavior

 
The Human Primate

 
 
Chapter 5: Hominin Evolution
Trends in Hominin Evolution

 
Fossil Evolution for Hominin Evolution

 
Interpreting the Fossil Record

 
From Homo erectus to Homo sapiens

 
Genetic Data and Modern Human Origins

 
Archaic and Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens

 
 
Chapter 6: Human Variation
Sources of Human Variation

 
Adaptive Aspects of Human Variation

 
Effects of the Physical Environment

 
Cultural Factors in Human Evolution

 
The Concept of Race

 
Heredity and Intelligence

 
Current Approaches to Human Variation

 
 
Part 3: Archaeology
 
Chapter 7: The Paleolithic
Lifestyles of the Earliest Hominins

 
The Life and Times of Genus Homo

 
The Middle Paleolithic

 
Modern Homo sapiens and Their Cultures

 
The Migration of Upper Paleolithic Humans

 
 
Chapter 8: The Origins of Domestication and Settled Life
The End of Paleolithic: Changes in Climate and Culture

 
The Neolithic: Origins of Food Production

 
Why Did Domestication Occur?

 
Domestication in Different Regions of the World

 
Consequences of Domestication

 
 
Chapter 9: The Rise of the State and Complex Society
The State and Civilization

 
Studying Complex Societies

 
Theories about State Formation

 
States in Different World Areas

 
The Collapse of State Societies

 
 
Part 4: Basic Concepts of Culture and Society
 
Chapter 10: Culture
The Characteristics of Culture

 
Culture is Learned

 
Culture is Shared

 
Aspects of Culture

 
Cultural Diversity

 
Cultural Universals

 
 
Chapter 11: The Process of Enculturation: Psychological and Cognitive Anthropology
Biology versus Culture

 
Instincts and Human Nature

 
Enculturation: Culture and Personality

 
Psychoanalytic Approaches in Anthropology

 
Enculturation and Cognition

 
Cognitive Anthropology

 
Evolutionary Psychology

 
Enculturation and Emotions

 
Neuroanthropology

 
The Limits of Enculturation

 
 
Chapter 12: Language
Non-Human Animal Communication

 
Animal Communication versus Human Language

 
The Evolution of Language

 
The Structure of Language

 
Language Acquisition

 
Language, Thought, and Culture

 
Historical Linguistics

 
Sociolinguistics

 
Nonverbal Communication

 
 
Chapter 13: Anthropological Explanations
Nineteenth-Century Evolutionism

 
Diffusionism

 
Historical Particularism

 
Functionalism

 
Twentieth-Century Evolutionism

 
Marxist Anthropology

 
Symbolic Anthropology: A Humanistic Method of Inquiry

 
Feminist Anthropology

 
Postmodernism and Anthropology

 
Twenty First Century Cultural Evolution

 
 
Chapter 14: Analyzing Sociocultural Systems
Ethnographic Fieldwork

 
Ethnographic Research and Strategies

 
Ethics in Anthropological Research

 
Analysis of Ethnographic Data

 
Sociocultural Evolution: A Contemporary Model

 
Types of Sociocultural Systems

 
Cross-Cultural Research

 
 
Part 5: Studying Different Societies
 
Chapter 15: Environment, Subsistence, and Demography
Subsistence and the Physical Environment

 
Demography

 
Modern Foraging Environments and Subsistence

 
Demographic Conditions for Foragers

 
Environment and Subsistence for Horticulturalsts and Pastoralists

 
Demographics and Settlement

 
Environment, Subsistence, and Demography for Chiefdom

 
Environment and Demography in Agricultural States

 
Environment and Energy Use in Industrial and Postindustrial States

 
Demographic Change

 
 
Chapter 16: Technology and Economics
Anthropological Explanations of Technology

 
Anthropology and Economics

 
Technology in Foraging Societies

 
Economics in Foraging Societies

 
Technology Among Horticulturalits and Pastoralists

 
Economics in Horticulturalists and Pastoralist Societies

 
Technology in Chiefdoms

 
Economy Chiefdoms

 
Technology in Agricultural States

 
Economics in Agricultural States

 
Technology and Economic Changes for Industrial and Postindustrial Societies

 
 
Chapter 17: Social Structure, the Family, Marriage, and Age
Social Structure

 
Understanding Incest Avoidance and the Incest Taboo

 
Age

 
Social Structure in Hunter-Gatherer Societies

 
Social Structure in Tribes

 
Social Structure in Chiefdoms

 
Social Structure in Agricultural States

 
Social Stratification in Agricultural States

 
Social Structure in Industrial and Postindustrial States

 
Social Stratification in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies

 
 
Chapter 18: Gender and Sexuality
Complexities of Sex

 
Complexities of Gender

 
Gender in Foraging Societies

 
Gender in Tribal Societies

 
Gender and Enculturation: Margaret Mead’s Study

 
Patriarchy in Tribal Societies

 
Gender in Chiefdom Societies

 
Gender in Agricultural States

 
Gender in Industrial and Postindustrial States

 
Gender in Latin America, Africa, The Middle East, and Asia

 
Sexuality in Different Societies

 
 
Chapter 19: Politics, Warfare, and Law
Politics, Warfare, and Law

 
Political Organization in Foraging Societies

 
Warfare and Violence in Foraging Societies

 
Political Organization in Horticulturalist and Pastoralist Tribes

 
Explaining Tribal Warfare

 
Political Authority in Chiefdoms

 
The Evolution of Chiefdoms

 
Politics in Agricultural States

 
Political Organization in Industrial and Postindustrial States

 
Warfare and Industrial Technology

 
 
Chapter 20: Religion and Aesthetics
Religion

 
Myths

 
Rites of Passage

 
Cognition and Religion

 
Aesthetics: Art and Music

 
Religion among Foragers

 
Art, Music and Religion among Foragers

 
Religion among Horticulturalists and Pastoralists

 
Religion in Chiefdoms

 
Art, Architecture, and Music in Chiefdoms

 
Religion in Agricultural States

 
Art, Architecture, and Music in Agricultural States

 
Religion and Secularization in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies

 
Art and Music in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies

 
 
Part 6: Consequences of Globalization
 
Chapter 21: Globalization, Culture, and Indigenous Societies
Globalization: A Contested Term

 
Globalization: Technological and Economic Trends

 
Globalization: General Theoretical Approaches

 
Anthropological Analysis and Globalization

 
Globalization, Politics, and Culture

 
Globalization and Indigenous Peoples

 
Forms of Resistance among Indigenous Peoples

 
Pro and Anti Globalization: An Anthropological Contribution

 
 
Chapter 22: Globalization, Colonialism and Postcolonialism
Globalization and Colonialism

 
Consequences of Globalization and Colonialism

 
Political Changes: Independence and Nationalist Movements

 
Uneven Economic Development

 
Ethnographic Studies

 
Social Structure in Postcolonial Societies

 
Patterns of Ethnicity

 
 
Part 7: Anthropology and the Global Future
 
Chapter 23: Ethnicity
Race, Racism, and Culture

 
The Cultural and Social Significance of Race

 
Ethnicity

 
Anthropological Perspectives on Ethnicity

 
Patterns of Ethnic Relations

 
Ethnic Relations in the United States

 
Ethnonationalism

 
 
Chapter 24: Applied Anthropology
The Roles of the Applied Anthropologist

 
Biological Anthropology

 
Medical Anthropology

 
Medical Anthropology and Mental Illness

 
Cultural Resource Management: Applied Archaeology

 
Who Owns the Past?

 
Applied Cultural Anthropology

 
Applied Anthropology, Climate Change, and Sustainability

 
Applied Anthropology and Human Rights

 
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • A fourth core theme of essentialism, the flawed beliefs that members of certain categories or classifications share an underlying invisible essence, is introduced.
  • A dramatically new look: new photos and figures, and others deleted or modified, better illustrate key points.
  • A new chapter on gender and sexuality explores the complexities of topics such as LGBTQ issues in various societies throughout the world. 
  • Chapter 3 on evolution has been condensed, and its key terms reduced, providing a succinct discussion for undergraduate students.
  • Chapter 5 on human evolution and Chapter 7 on the Paleolithic have been substantially revised and updated to include the most up to date paleoanthropological and archaeological data and findings.
  • A new condensed Chapter 22 on globalization, colonialism, and postcolonialism provides the most current ethnographic research on how peoples have been impacted by globalization throughout the world.
  • New Anthropologists at Work boxes provide profiles of cultural anthropologists, archaeologists, and linguistic anthropologists who study preserving and developing native languages, psychological anthropology, YouTube, space travel, the global financial world, and more.
  • New, updated, and expanded discussions include coverage of the current field methods used in archaeological research, the evolution of anatomically modern humans, the Neanderthals, the Denisova hominins, the increasing role of genomic data in the interpretation of hominin evolution and modern human origins, and more.

KEY FEATURES:

  • An organization around four unifying themes structure the material presented in this textbook, helping students grasp the complex field of anthropology:
    1. diversity of human societies
    2. similarities that make all humans fundamentally alike
    3. synthetic-complementary approach
    4. essentialism
  • This text engages readers in anthropology by delving into both classic and current research in the field, reflecting a commitment to anthropology’s holistic and integrative approach.
  • Critical Perspectives boxes are designed to stimulate independent reasoning and judgment by prompting students to take on the role of anthropologists and engage in the critical analysis of specific problems that arise in anthropological research.
  • Learning Objectives prompt students to begin each chapter with an idea of what they should seek to understand as well as summarize at the end of the section.
  • Every chapter ends with a Summary and Review of Learning Objectives, helping students review and better retain concepts.
  • A list of Key Terms with page numbers in every chapter helps students focus on the key concepts introduced.

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