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Clinical Mental Health Counseling

Clinical Mental Health Counseling
Elements of Effective Practice

Edited by:

August 2016 | 480 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Referencing the 2016 CACREP standards, Clinical Mental Health Counseling: Elements of Effective Practice combines solid foundational information with practical application for a realistic introduction to work in community mental health settings. Top experts in the field cover emerging models for clinical interventions as they explore cutting-edge approaches to CMH counseling. With case studies integrated throughout, students will be well prepared to move into practicum and internship courses as well as field-based settings.

“An instant classic. Young and Cashwell have assembled a stellar group of counselor education authors and produced an outstanding, comprehensive, and easy-to-read text that clearly articulates and elevates the discipline of clinical mental health counseling. This book covers everything a CMHC needs to hit the ground running in clinical practice!"

Bradley T. Erford, Loyola University Maryland, Past President of the American Counseling Association

About the Editors and Contributors
Kerrie K. Fuenfhausen, Scott Young, Craig Cashwell, and Muthoni Musangali
1 History and Evolution of Clinical Mental Health Counseling
Foundational Principles of Counseling  
Wellness Model of Mental Health  
Developmental Perspective  
Prevention and Early Intervention  
Multicultural Worldview  
History of CMH Counseling  
Historical Influences  
Professional Practice in CMH Counseling  
Professional Identity  
Models of Change  
Roles and Functions of CMH Counselors  
CMH Counselor Functions  
CMH Counselor Roles  
Populations Served  
Case Study  
Jamie Crockett
2 Legal and Ethical Issues 31
What Is Professional Conduct?  
Consult, Consult, Consult!  
Moral Principles  
Professional Standards for Ethical Practice  
Legal Considerations  
Legal and Ethical Challenges  
Ethical Decision Making  
Multicultural and Social Justice Considerations  
Case Studies  
Select Resources for Ethical and Legal CMH Counseling Practice  
Catherine Y. Chang, Simone Lambert, and Emily Goodman-Scott
3 Advocacy and Social Justice
The Case of Yolanda  
Ecological View  
Case Study Discussion  
Understanding Advocacy and Social Justice  
Case Study  
Multicultural Competence and Culturally Responsive CMH Counseling  
Case Study Discussion  
Social Injustice and Mental Health  
Privilege and Oppression  
Racism and Sexism  
Case Study Discussion  
Case Study Discussion  
Advocacy and Social Justice Counseling  
Client Advocacy  
Case Study Discussion  
Professional Advocacy  
Case Study Discussion  
Global Perspectives on Counseling  
Amy Banner
4 Continuum of Care
Continuum of Care: One Size Does Not Fit All  
Modalities of the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care  
Individual Counseling  
Group Counseling  
Couple and Family Counseling  
History of the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care  
Ethical and Developmental Aspects of the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care  
Services, Settings, and Roles Across the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care  
Prevention and Education Services  
Outpatient Services  
In-Home Services  
Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHPs) and Intensive Outpatient (IOP) Services  
Inpatient Services  
Residential Services  
Crisis and Emergency Services  
Professional Issues Affecting the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care  
Case Study  
Casey Barrio-Minton
5 Assessing Client Concerns
Assessment Foundations  
Purposes and Methods of Assessment  
Clinical, Intake, and Diagnostic Interviewing  
Types of Interviews  
Initial or Intake Interview  
Unstandardized Questionnaires and Checklists  
Mental Status Examinations  
Mini–Mental State Exam  
Using Standardized Tests and Inventories to Inform Counseling  
Broad-Symptom Inventories  
Specific-Symptom Inventories  
Structured Personality Inventories  
Projective Techniques  
Qualitative Assessment  
Collateral Sources  
Screening for High-Risk Situations  
General Medical Conditions  
Suicide Risk  
Violence Risk  
Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse  
Substance Concerns  
Cultural Bias in Assessment  
Using Assessment to Inform Counseling  
Case Study  
Appendix: Current Concerns Questionnaire and Checklist (Adult)  
Gary Gintner
6 Diagnosis
Psychopathology and Etiology  
Mental Health and Mental Illness  
Dimensions of Psychopathology  
Etiological Factors and the Biopsychosocial Model  
Diagnostic Issues With the DSM  
DSM: A Look Backward  
Diagnostic Process: Four Guiding Principles  
Principle 1: Check the Adequacy of Your Information  
Principle 2: Use Diagnostic Hierarchies for Differential Diagnosis  
Principle 3: Resolve Diagnostic Uncertainty by Examining the Usual Suspects  
Principle 4: Your Diagnosis Is a Hypothesis That May Need Correcting  
Case Study  
Daniel M. Paredes and Maria A. Brunelli Paredes
7 Treatment Planning
Determining Client Needs and Appropriate Services  
Case of Tara  
From Conceptualization to Treatment Planning  
Personal Style  
Counselor Theoretical Framework  
Expectations of the Counselor’s Work Setting  
Developing and Implementing Treatment Plans  
Treatment Goals  
Case of Joseph and Sophia  
Treatment Objectives  
Treatment Interventions  
Additional Treatment Plan Components  
Referral, Keeping a Resource List, and Application  
Keeping a Resource List  
Case of Emily  
Termination Versus Maintenance  
Treatment Planning and Special Populations  
Treatment Planning With Children and Adolescents  
Treatment Planning With Mandated Clients  
Case Study  
Todd Lewis and John Culbreth
8 Psychiatry and Psychopharmacology
Brain Physiology, Neurotransmitters, and Medication: A Basic Overview  
Mechanisms of Action  
Why Use Medication in the Treatment of Mental Disorders?  
Controversy in Using Medication in the Treatment of Mental Disorders  
The Mental Health Counselor’s Dilemma  
Classes of Psychotropic Medications, Their Effects, and Side Effects  
Antidepressant Medications  
Antianxiety Medications  
Antipsychotic Medications  
Bipolar Medications  
Working Effectively With Psychiatrists  
Making Medication Referrals  
Medication Compliance  
Assessing and Managing Side Effects  
Working Effectively With Clients and Medication  
Talking to Clients About Medication  
Medication Advocacy  
Legal and Ethical Issues With Psychopharmacology  
Case Study  
Laura Welfare, Paige Greason, and Keith Mobley
9 Managed Care, Billing, and Documentation
Managed Care  
Managed Care Laws and Legislation  
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)  
HIPAA Privacy Rule  
HIPAA Security Rule  
HIPAA Enforcement  
Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act  
Affordable Care Act  
Managed Care: Becoming an Approved Provider  
Insurance: Private and Public Payers  
Private Insurance  
Government-Sponsored Insurance  
Self-Pay and Other Means  
Maintaining Records  
Importance of Paperwork  
Administrative and Clinical Documentation Practices  
Clinical Documentation Practices  
Intake Assessment Forms  
Screening and Outcome Measures  
Clinical Case Notes  
Case Study 1: Navigating Insurance Coverage  
Case Study 2: Writing Eff ective Case Notes  
Appendix: Personal History and Intake Form  
Amber L. Pope and Allison Marsh Pow
10 Crisis Management and Disaster Relief
Differentiating Crisis Management and Disaster Relief  
Crisis Management  
What Is a Crisis?  
Crisis Counseling  
Range of Individual Crises  
Principles of Crisis Management  
Crisis Management Planning  
Emergency and Disaster Relief  
Impact of Crises and Disasters  
Factors Influencing Mental Health After an Emergency or Disaster  
Groups at Risk  
Emergency and Disaster Response  
Immediate Interventions  
Intermediate and Long-Term Interventions  
Disaster Mental Health Training  
Impact of Crisis Counseling and Disaster Relief Work on CMH Counselors  
Case Study 1: Crisis Management  
Case Study 2: Disaster Mental Health  
DiAnne Borders
11 The Importance of Clinical Supervision to Effective Practice
Models of Clinical Supervision  
Developmental Models  
Discrimination Model  
Peer Models  
Group Supervision Models  
Triadic Supervision  
Maximizing Your Supervision Experience  
Practice Self-Assessment and Create Learning Goals  
Prepare for Supervision  
Take Risks  
Practice Self-Reflection  
Consider Power and Authority; Evaluation and Feedback  
Practice Peer Feedback in Triadic and Group Supervision  
Bring Difficult Topics to Supervision  
Poor Supervision  
Case Study  
Gerard Lawson and Jennifer M. Cook
12 Wellness, Self-Care, and Burnout Prevention
CMH Counseling Risks and Challenges  
High-Touch Hazards  
What Burnout Looks Like  
Burnout Prevention  
Vicarious Traumatization  
Symptoms and Signs of Vicarious Trauma  
Addressing Vicarious Trauma  
Compassion Fatigue  
Compassion Fatigue Described  
Contributing Factors to Compassion Fatigue  
Identifying Compassion Fatigue  
Counselor Wellness  
Mindfulness Defined  
Career-Sustaining Behaviors  
Healthy Habits  
Case Study  
Kelly L. Wester and Tamarine Foreman
13 Using Research to Improve Clinical Practice
Research Defined and Described  
Ways of Knowing  
Evidence-Based Practice  
Scientist-Practitioner Model  
Case Study  
Step 1: Assess the Client  
Step 2: Create a Well-Formulated Question  
Step 3: Conduct a Search for Evidence  
Step 4: Select and Access Articles to Read  
Step 5: Evaluate and Appraise the Quality of Research  
Step 6: Synthesize Information  
Step 7: Clinical Application  
Step 8: Evaluation  
Jane E. Myers and Laura Jones
14 The Applications of Neuroscience to Clinical Mental Health Counseling
Neuroscience in Counseling  
Neural Anatomy  
Neuroscience and the Therapeutic Relationship  
Therapeutic Process and Neuroplasticity  
Neurofeedback: One Application of Neuroscience in Practice  
What Is Neurofeedback and How Does It Work?  
Case Study  
Amanda L. Giordano, Philip B. Clarke, Cheryl L. Fulton, and Tammy H. Cashwell
15 Emerging Approaches to Clinical Mental Health Counseling
Motivational Interviewing  
The Basics of MI  
Support for MI  
MI in Practice  
Case Study  
Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy  
The Basics of EFT  
Stage 1: Deescalation of Negative Cycles of Interaction  
Stage 2: Changing Interactional Positions  
Stage 3: Consolidation and Integration  
Support for EFT  
EFT in Practice  
Case Study  
Dialectical Behavior Therapy  
The Basics of DBT  
Support for DBT  
DBT in Practice  
Case Study  
Interpersonal Psychotherapy  
The Basics of IPT  
Support for IPT  
IPT in Practice  
Case Study  
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)  
The Basics of TF-CBT  
Support for TF-CBT  
TF-CBT in Practice  
Case Study  
The Basics of Mindfulness  
Support for Mindfulness  
Mindfulness in Practice  
Case Study  
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy  
The Basics of ACT  
Support for ACT  
ACT in Practice  
Case Study  
Spirituality in Counseling  
The Basics of Spirituality in Counseling  
Support for Spirituality in Counseling  
Spirituality in Counseling in Practice  
Case Study  

“Having gathered a plethora of established experts in the field of mental health counseling, the editors packed this book with content that will meet or exceed the curricular needs of any graduate counseling course; ‘comprehensive’ is an understatement!”

W. Bryce Hagedorn
University of Central Florida

“An instant classic. Young and Cashwell have assembled a stellar group of counselor education authors and produced an outstanding, comprehensive, and easy-to-read text that clearly articulates and elevates the discipline of clinical mental health counseling. This book covers everything a CMHC needs to hit the ground running in clinical practice!”

Bradley T. Erford
Loyola University Maryland, Past President of the American Counseling Association

“A ‘must-have’ resource for anyone looking for a comprehensive and reader-friendly clinical mental health counseling text! The introductory chapter provides a solid context for the ensuing chapters that focus on specific topics (such as legal/ethical issues, diagnosis, supervision), all authored by leading experts. It’s all here—everything that learners need to know as they embark on their professional journeys to becoming CMHCs.”

Barbara Herlihy
University of New Orleans

Clinical Mental Health Counseling: Elements of Effective Practice is a great text for introducing students to the roles and functions of clinical mental health counseling. The authors have organized the material in a clear and engaging level which makes it appropriate for students. I particularly appreciate the documentation and evidence-based sections.”

Alfonzo Haralson
Jackson State University

“The authors have succeeded in building a very comprehensive book, focused on the CACREP standards, that is up to date and gives new and also practical information regarding the profession.  There are some chapters that are very unique for an introductory textbook (e.g., chapters devoted to billing, documentation, psychopharmacology, neuroscience, a full chapter on research). There is also some cutting-edge information included on evidence based practices. Usually, there isn’t an entire chapter devoted to advocacy. Thus, instructors have to supplement the information in textbooks with the ACA Advocacy Competencies and various articles and examples. The chapter on advocacy is a treasure because it is comprehensive and really introduces the students to the counselor advocacy role up front!”

Heather Trepal
University of Texas at San Antonio

“The authors were able to invite contributors that are known experts in their field. They write from a strong theoretical base and are practitioners in their areas of expertise.”

Judith G. Miranti
Xavier University of Louisiana

“This book provides the most comprehensive knowledge, skills, and applications about mental health practice in community settings.” 

Kananur V. Chandras
The Fort Valley State University

“By offering a text that can provide a thorough foundation for counselor trainees, Young & Cashwell have offered Counselor Educators a much-needed tool for bridging a significant gap in counselor training.”

Kathleen Woods
Chadron State College

Clinical Mental Health Counseling: Elements of Effective Practice is current, thorough, and student friendly.”

Lakitta Johnson
Jackson State University

Clinical Mental Health Counseling: Elements of Effective Practice is a comprehensive overview of a complex topic.”

Robert C. Schwartz
University of Akron
Key features
  • Required 2016 CACREP standards for CMH Counseling programs are covered.
  • Chapter authors are leading counseling writers, and many are practicing CMH counselors.
  • Chapter topics apply theory to real-world issues of practice, such as paperwork and medications.
  • Case studies and discussion questions afford students opportunities to apply what they read to practical situations.
  • Evidence-based treatments, neuroscience, and other cutting-edge topics reflect the currency of the text.Bolded key concepts help students to focus their reading and learning.

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