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Culture and Identity
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Culture and Identity
Life Stories for Counselors and Therapists

Third Edition
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September 2016 | 464 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Culture and Identity engages students with autobiographical stories that show the intersections of culture as part of identity formation. The easy-to-read stories centered on such themes as race, ethnicity, gender, class, religion, sexual orientation, and disability tell the real-life struggles with identity development, life events, family relationships, and family history. The Third Edition includes an expanded framework model that encompasses racial socialization, oppression, and resilience. New discussions of timely topics include race and gender intersectionality, microaggressions, enculturation, cultural homelessness, risk of journey, spirituality and wellness, and APA guidelines for working with transgendered individuals.

 
Preface
Organization of the Book  
 
Acknowledgments
 
SECTION I: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS
 
1. Self in Context
Developmental Processes  
Development of the Self  
Development of Self in Context  
Societal Influences on Development  
Shifting Selves  
Resilience  
What Is Resilience?  
Factors Associated With Resilience  
Personal Protective Factors  
Using Resilience in Treatment  
 
SECTION II: RACE AND ETHNICITY
 
2. Julie’s Story: So What if I’m a Black Woman?
Julie’s Story  
Content Themes  
Race and Stereotypes  
Interpersonal Relationships  
Racism  
Self-Definition/Authentic Self  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Influence of Race  
Techniques and Interventions  
Critical Consciousness and the Authentic Self  
Racial Heritage  
Racial Socialization  
Countertransference  
Reactions to Racism  
Race of the Therapist  
Toolbox Activity—Julie  
 
3. Butch’s Story: Who Am I?
Butch’s Story  
Content Themes  
Contextual Dimensions  
Family Socialization Patterns  
Intragroup Differences  
Self-Image  
Cultural Homelessness  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Techniques and Interventions  
Myths About Multiracial Individuals  
Family and Racial Socialization Processes  
Countertransference  
Myths and Misperceptions  
Issues of Self-Hatred  
Toolbox Activity—Butch  
 
4. Betsie’s Story: I Am 100% Jewish
Betsie’s Story  
Content Themes  
Pride About Ethnic Background  
The Connection Between Ethnicity and Family Values  
Pressure to Conform to Ethnic Values  
Relationship Between Ethnicity and Religion  
Relationship Between Sociohistorical Contexts and Identity  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Pride About Ethnic Background  
Ethnicity, Family Values, and Pressures to Conform  
Relationship Between Ethnicity, Religion, Sociohistorical Contexts, and Other Variables  
Techniques and Interventions  
Countertransference  
Similar Ethnicity  
Different Ethnicity  
Toolbox Activity—Betsie  
 
5. Maribel’s Story: When Are You Going to Have Kids?
Maribel’s Story  
Content Themes  
Ethnicity, Immigration, Social Class, and Racism  
Ethnicity and Language  
The Double Life of a Hybrid Identity  
Gender Role Shifts  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Techniques and Interventions  
Countertransference  
Toolbox Activity—Maribel  
 
SECTION III: IMMIGRATION AND ACCULTURATION
 
6. Vu’s Story: I Am an American
Vu’s Story  
Content Themes  
Forced Migration and Refugee Status  
Second Language Acquisition  
Acculturation and Assimilation Processes  
Survivor Guilt  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Forced Migration and Refugee Status  
Second Language Acquisition  
Acculturation Processes and Coping Styles  
Survivor Guilt  
Techniques and Interventions  
Acquire Knowledge of History  
Psycholinguistic History  
Countertransference  
Excessive Curiosity About the Client’s Background  
Wish to Help Clients Go Back to Their Roots  
Toolbox Activity—Vu  
 
7. Esteban’s Story: Still Uprooted
Esteban’s Story  
Content Themes  
Tragic Loss  
Language Loss  
Language, Acculturation, and Ethnicity  
Immigration and Social Class  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Language Loss  
Shifts in Social Class  
Ethnicity and Acculturation Views  
Techniques and Interventions  
Language Switching and Language Mixing  
Countertransference  
Sadness or Guilt  
Denial of Culture  
Wish to Prove That the Clinician Is Above Prejudice  
Toolbox Activity—Esteban  
 
8. Maria Luz’s Story: Here We Are Not Free
Maria Luz’s Story  
Content Themes  
Ambivalence  
Voluntary Versus Involuntary Migration  
Documented Versus Undocumented Status  
Language Issues of the First-Generation Immigrant  
Immigration and Geographic Origin  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Potential for Dropout From Services  
Beliefs About Mental Health Practices  
Risk of Dropout From Counseling Services  
Ambivalence About the Immigration Decision  
Language Issues  
Importance of Geographic Origin  
Documentation Status  
Techniques and Interventions  
Pretherapy Orientation  
Countertransference  
Clients’ Language, Habits, and Customs  
Therapist Discomfort and Positive or Negative Stereotypes  
Toolbox Activity—Maria Luz  
 
9. Teresa’s Story: I Didn’t Want to Go to Church on Sunday
Teresa’s Story  
Content Themes  
First- Versus Second-Generation Immigrants  
Language Issues of the Second Generation: Loss or Rejection  
Intergenerational Conflicts and Gender  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Language Issues With the Second Generation  
Intergenerational Conflicts and Gender Roles  
Techniques and Interventions  
Untangling Family Conflicts Based on Second-Generation Choices  
Countertransference  
Taking Sides  
Toolbox Activity—Teresa  
 
SECTION IV: RELIGION AND SPIRITUALITY
 
10. Frank’s Story: Hearing God’s Voice
Frank’s Story  
Content Themes  
Relationship With God  
Submission in Religion  
Religion as a Strength or Resource  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Relationship With a Higher Power  
Existential Questions  
Religion as Strength  
Techniques and Interventions  
Countertransference  
Discomfort With Religious Discussions  
Differences in Religious Beliefs  
Toolbox Activity—Frank  
 
11. Bob’s Story: The Good Christian Son
Bob’s Story  
Content Themes  
Religious Socialization  
Shift in Religious Identity  
Internal Migration and Religious Identity  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Techniques and Interventions  
Countertransference  
Toolbox Activity—Bob  
 
12. Katie’s Story: Catholic and Jewish? How Can It Be?
Katie’s Story  
Was This a “Crisis” of Faith?  
The Wedding Plans  
And the Rest of the Story . . . ?  
Teach Your Children Diligently  
Practice, Practice, Practice: A Practicing Catholic  
Content Themes  
Religious Identity Development  
Decision Making  
Family Socialization  
Influence of Current Events  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Techniques and Interventions  
Examination of Specific Religious Teachings  
Interfaith Relationship Issues  
Countertransference  
Moral Dilemmas  
Confusion About Interfaith Differences  
Toolbox Activity—Katie  
 
13. Malia’s Story: Am I American?
Malia’s Story  
Content Themes  
Process of Identity  
Acculturation  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Process of Identity  
Religion  
Acculturation  
Techniques and Interventions  
Countertransference  
Toolbox Activity—Malia  
 
SECTION V: SOCIAL CLASS
 
14. Carla’s Story: One More Mile
Carla’s Story  
Content Themes  
The Impact of Poverty  
Lack of Access to Resources  
Importance of Education  
Link to Race/Dominant Values  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Techniques and Interventions  
Countertransference  
Toolbox Activity—Carla  
 
15. Anthony’s Story: From Radical to Bohemian to Suit Me
Anthony’s Story  
Content Themes  
Changes in Socioeconomic Status and Social Class  
Dominant Class Standards  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Techniques and Interventions  
Dominant Values  
Budgets  
Countertransference  
Differences in Values  
Classism  
Toolbox Activity—Anthony  
 
SECTION VI: SEXUAL ORIENTATION
Clinical Considerations  
 
16. Karen’s Story: Midlife Growing Pains
Karen’s Story  
Content Themes  
Coming Out  
Bisexuality  
Shame and Internal Judgment  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Techniques and Interventions  
Countertransference  
Toolbox Activity—Karen  
 
17. Rachel’s Story: Nurturing the Spirit
Transgender and Intersex Sexuality  
Implications for Professionals  
Discussion Questions  
Rachel’s Story  
Content Themes  
Trapped in Wrong Body/Gender Identity  
Transition  
Harassment  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Cross-Gender Expression and Transgender Identity  
Techniques and Interventions  
Expression and Acceptance of Gender Identity  
Transitioning and Working Through Harassment  
Belief in Client Competency  
Countertransference  
Toolbox Activity—Rachel  
 
SECTION VII: DISABILITY
 
18. David’s Story: Broken Neck, Intact Spirit
David’s Story  
Content Themes  
Grief and Loss Issues  
Adjusting to the Disability  
Disability Identity Development  
Discrimination  
Resilience and Social Justice  
Clinical Applications  
Assessment  
Techniques and Interventions  
Grief and Loss  
Fostering Resilience  
Career Counseling  
Intersectionality  
Process of Therapy  
Countertransference  
Pity  
Curiosity  
Toolbox Activity—David  
 
Appendix
 
References
 
Index
 
About the Authors

Supplements

Instructor Site
Password-protected Instructor Resources include the following:

  • Discussion and essay questions can be used as a spring board for classroom discussion and for essay questions in exam or quizzes.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
  • Presentation suggestions for student research papers or oral presentations. The topics can also be used for class discussions, papers, and as a basis for ideas to assign other projects.
  • Comprehensive instructor’s manual comprised of all resources developed for this text.

Student Study Site
The open-access Student Study Site includes the following:

  • For a more real-life, intimate understanding of the life stories, five podcasts and videos relate the stories of Butch, Maribel, Bob, Anthony, and Karen, taped by professional actors, correspond to the stories published in the book. 
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
  • Additional relevant sources can be assigned to the primary textbook to supplement information in each of the sections of the textbook.
  • Relevant films of topics including: The Concepts of Culture and Ethnicity, Culture and Research, Basic Processes, Culture and Developmental Processes, Personality, Emotion, and the Self in Cultural Context, Health, Stress, and Coping Across Cultures, Culture and Social Behavior, Intergroup Relations, and Intercultural Interaction.

 

 

 

“The authors provide readers with compelling narratives that are both powerful and informative. The book is well organized and helps the reader identify important content themes and interventions necessary to work with diverse populations. I would highly recommend this text to counselor trainees and students interested in working from a culturally mindful perspective!” 

Jason Vasquez
Illinois State University

“Thomas and Schwarzbaum’s life story approach offers students and trainees an inclusive, sensitive, and progressive means of evaluating cultural identity development. Their rich collection of narratives generates valuable insights into the intersection of a diverse array of cultural factors that foster cultural identity growth. Students and trainees who read this text will gain fresh perspectives on how their therapeutic approach can be used to help clients cultivate and bolster a personally meaningful cultural identity.”  

Jeff Kilbert
Georgia Southern University

“Thomas and Schwarzbaum’s delicate handling of the sensitive topic of multicultural counseling in the text Culture and Identity: Life Stories for Counselors and Therapists is a must read for students and therapists who wish to increase their knowledge, skills, and understanding of the dynamics of a rapidly changing multicultural world.”

Merrill T. Reese
Regent University
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • A new story on Muslim American identity (ethnicity and religion) is included.
  • A new framework incorporates contextual influences, including oppression and micro-aggressions.
  • The Introduction now highlights current issues such as Black Lives Matter.
  • New topics include cultural homelessness and enculturation.
  • The latest APA guidelines for working with transgendered individuals have been added.
KEY FEATURES:

  • Content Themes extracted from each story describe cultural concepts and cultural variables and how those variables interact in the individual’s life.
  • A Clinical Applications section in each chapter includes clear, varied, and specific assessment questions and interventions that readers can use with their clients.
  • A valuable, rarely seen Countertransference section describes possible personal reactions clinicians may experience when working with clients and enhances clinical effectiveness and multicultural competency.
  • A Toolbox Activity for each chapter, including discussion questions, research projects, and book and video resources, helps students master important concepts.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 17


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