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Drugs, Crime, and Justice
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Drugs, Crime, and Justice

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October 2014 | 344 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Drugs, Crime, and Justice is an engaging, yet comprehensive, analysis of the interrelationships among drug use/abuse, crime, and justice. The first four chapters introduce readers to the interrelationships between drugs and crime, while the second later chapters provide readers with an overview of historical and contemporary policies, as well as a comprehensive review of research on policing drug markets, arresting drug offenders, and prosecution and sentencing of drug offenders in state and federal courts. The authors also examine and assess the impact of the war on drugs and conclude with a discussion of recent policy changes such as drug courts and reform/repeal of mandatory minimum sentences and an examination of new and emerging drug policies in the 21st Century.

 
CHAPTER 1: DRUGS, CRIME, AND THE JUSTICE SYSTEM: OVERVIEW
Drug Use in the United States

 
Arrests and Incarceration for Drug-Related Crime

 
The Connections among Drug Abuse, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System

 
Goal of the Book and Overview of the Remaining Chapters

 
CHAPTER 2: PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AND DRUG USE/ABUSE

 
Basic Concepts about Psychoactive Drugs

 
Tolerance, Dependence, Abuse and Addiction

 
Drug Abuse and Drug Misuse

 
Drug Dependence and Addiction

 
Factors Influencing Drugs’ Effects on Behavior and Mood

 
Classes of Drugs and the Drug Enforcement Administration Schedules

 
Classes and Types of Illegal Drugs and Their Effects

 
Marijuana

 
Focus on an Issue: Marijuana as the “Gateway Drug”?

 
Central Nervous System Depressants: Opiates

 
Heroin

 
Synthetic Opiates (Opioids)

 
Sedative-Hypnotics

 
Stimulant Drugs

 
Cocaine

 
Crack Cocaine

 
Amphetamines

 
Methamphetamine

 
Hallucinogens

 
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

 
Psilocybin (Mushrooms) and Peyote (Mescaline)

 
Phencyclidine (PCP)

 
Club Drugs

 
Summary: Psychoactive Drugs and Their Effects

 
 
CHAPTER 3: THEORIES OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE
Explaining Drug Use and Abuse

 
Is Addiction a Moral Problem or a Disease?

 
Biological and Genetic Theories

 
Psychological Theories

 
Sociological Theories

 
Summary: Theories of Drug Use and Abuse

 
 
CHAPTER 4: DRUG ABUSE AND CRIME
The Drugs-Crime Connection

 
Drug Use Among Offenders

 
Drug Use Among Offenders Under Correctional Supervision

 
The Meaning of the Drugs-Crime Connection?

 
Drugs and Crime: A Complex Relationship

 
Theories Explaining the Drugs-Crime Connection

 
Drugs and Property Crime

 
Drugs and Violence

 
Stimulant Drugs and Violence

 
Other Drugs and Violence

 
Focus on an Issue: Gangs and Drug Dealing

 
Summary: Drug Abuse and Crime

 
 
CHAPTER 5: THE WAR ON DRUGS: HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES
The War on Drugs: A Historical Overview

 
The First War on Drugs: Alcohol and Prohibition

 
Criminalizing Drug Use: Targeting Opium, Morphine and Other Mood-Altering Drugs

 
The Harrison Tax Act of 1914

 
Focus on an Issue: Racial and Ethnic Prejudice and the Case for Criminalizing Drug Use

 
The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937

 
Enforcing the Drug-Control Legislation

 
The Controlled Substances Act of 1970

 
The Contemporary War on Drugs

 
Sentencing Reform and Sentencing Guidelines

 
Sentencing Guidelines for Drug Offenses

 
Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Statutes

 
Sentences Imposed on Offenders Convicted of Offenses with Mandatory Penalties

 
Focus on an Issue: The Crack-Power Cocaine Disparity

 
Criticisms of Mandatory Minimums

 
Drug-Free School Zones

 
Reducing the Supply of Drugs

 
Summary: The War on Drugs

 
 
CHAPTER 6: POLICING DRUGS: THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT STRATEGIES
Police and the War on Drugs: A Focus on Arresting Drug Users and Sellers

 
Racial Disparities in Drug Arrests

 
Explaining Increases in Arrest Rates for Drug Offenders

 
Did Arrests Increase Because Drug Use Increased?

 
Did Arrests Increase as a Result of Changes in Policies and Practices?

 
The Effect of Changes in Policing Strategies

 
Stop and Frisk Procedures

 
Pretext Traffic Stops

 
Drug Courier Profiles

 
Financial Incentives To Fight the War on Drugs

 
Focus on an Issue: Policing for Profit—Drug-Related Forfeitures

 
The Racial Disparity in Arrest Rates

 
Do Blacks Use or Sell Drugs at Higher Rates than Whites?

 
Are Police More Likely to Arrest Blacks than Whites for Drug Offenses?

 
Summary: Policing Drugs and Drug Offenders

 
 
CHAPTER 7: PROSECUTING DRUG OFFFENDERS IN STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS
Explaining Decisions of Prosecutors and Judges: The Focal Concerns Perspective

 
Drug Offenders in State and Federal Courts

 
Drug Offenders in State Courts

 
Drug Offenders in Federal Courts

 
Prosecutors’ Charging and Plea Bargaining Decisions

 
Research on Prosecutors’ Charging Decisions

 
Charging Decisions in State Court Systems

 
Charging Decisions in the Federal Court System

 
Focus on an Issue: Prosecution of Pregnant Women Who Use/Abuse Drugs

 
Filing Charges that Trigger Mandatory Minimum Sentences

 
U.S. Attorneys and the Substantial Assistance Departure

 
Focus on an Issue: Substantial Assistance Departures and Mandatory Minimum

 
Sentences: Melendez v. United States

 
Research on Use of Substantial Assistance Departures

 
Summary: Prosecuting Drug Offenders

 
 
CHAPTER 8: SENTENCING DRUG OFFENDERS
Trends in Sentencing Drug Offenders

 
Focus on an Issue: The Supreme Court and the Substantial Assistance Departure

 
Modeling the Sentencing Process

 
Disparity and Discrimination in Sentencing

 
Types of Sentencing Disparity

 
Types of Sentencing Discrimination

 
Warranted Versus Unwarranted Disparity

 
Gender Disparities in Sentencing Drug Offenders

 
Focus on an Issue: Changes in the Racial Dynamics of Women’s Incarceration

 
Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Sentencing Drug Offenders

 
Disparity Versus Discrimination in Sentencing Drug Offenders

 
Race and Imprisonment

 
Race/Ethnicity and Sentencing of Drug Offenders in State and Federal Courts

 
The “Dangerous Drug Offender” in State and Federal Court

 
Summary: Sentencing Drug Offenders: Severity, Disparity and Discrimination

 
 
CHAPTER 9: THE IMPACT OF THE WAR ON DRUGS
The Impact of the War on Drugs on Use of Illegal Drugs

 
 
Focus on an Issue: Malign Neglect?
The Impact of the War on Drugs on the Prison Population

 
The Imprisonment Binge

 
Mass Incarceration of Drug Offenders

 
The Characteristics of Imprisoned Drug Offenders

 
Focus on an Issue: The Effect of Imprisonment on Recidivism Rates for Felony Drug Offenders

 
Race and Imprisonment for Drug Offenses

 
Gender and Imprisonment for Drug Offenses

 
The Impact of the War on Drugs on Crime: A Focus on Policing

 
Explaining the “New York Murder Mystery”

 
The Effect of Drug Arrests on Crime

 
The Effects of Policing Strategies Designed to Reduce Illegal Drug Activity and Other Types of Crime

 
Displacement and Diffusion—Does Crime Simply Move Around the Corner?

 
The Collateral Consequences of the War on Drugs

 
Focus on an Issue: The Effect on Imprisonment on Employment Prospects

 
Summary: The Impact of the War on Drugs

 
 
CHAPTER 10: DRUGS, CRIME AND JUSTICE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Public Health Approaches: A Focus on Demand and Harm Reduction

 
Treating Drug-Involved Offenders: Effectiveness of Different Models

 
Diversion

 
Focus on an Issue: Should Drug Dealers be Eligible for Treatment Diversion if They Also Use Drugs?

 
Jail Treatment

 
Prison Treatment

 
Treatment under Community Corrections Supervision

 
Drug Courts

 
Key Elements of Drug Courts

 
Do Drug Courts Work?

 
Medication Assisted Treatment

 
Modifying Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the 21st Century

 
New Approaches: More Effective Solutions?

 
The Debate over Decriminalization and Legalization of Illicit Drugs

 
Legalization

 
Decriminalization

 
Potential Benefits and Problems from Legalization and Decriminalization

 
Prescription and Maintenance Models

 
Decriminalizing and Legalizing Marijuana: Medical Marijuana, Decriminalization, and Legalization

 
Medical Marijuana

 
Decriminalization and Legalization of Marijuana

 
Reimagining and Creating New Approaches to the Drugs, Crime and Justice Problem

 

Supplements

Student study site
  • SAGE Journal Articles combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience. Full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts.

I have taught Drugs and Crime and each semester I use a different book. I have struggled finding a book that covers the topic comprehensively and is student friendly. Drugs, Crime, and Justice solved my problem.

Doshie Piper
Sociology Dept, Univ Of The Incarnate Word
October 9, 2016

I am presently putting together a new module that will be on drugs, crime and justice and although this is still in the planning stage I will use the textbook as the core content for the lectures and presentations that I will be using, and also will order copies for the library.

Ms Janice Holloway
Department of Law, Aberystwyth University
June 27, 2016

Excellent book for this module. This book covers all aspects of drug use both legal and illegal. The statistical data that arises in the book is a valuable asset when making comparisons with other jurisdictions

Mr Martin Dorgan
MBA, University College Cork (NUI)
February 17, 2016

This book has some very relevant aspects associated with the course content. This will be recommended in our reading list for level 5 programmes Community Engagement and Partnership working and Level 6 Drugs and Alcohol in Society

Mr Stuart Harry Woodcock
Sociology , Chester University
August 19, 2015

The only reason that this book is recommended for supplemental reading is that the course does not have a specific drugs and crime module.

Miss Emily Loftus
Sport, Public Services, Travel and Tourism, South Essex College
March 26, 2015

This proved to be a useful supplementary text to provide context to a specific criminological issue.

Dr Lisa Sugiura
Sociology, Social Policy and Criminology, Southampton University
January 15, 2015

Perfect book for our AJ 13 Narcotics Investigation & Techniques course.

Professor Nancy Bengoa-Beterbide
Criminal Justice, Lassen Community College
November 10, 2014
Key features

KEY FEATURES:
Comprehensive treatment of the criminal justice system’s response to drug use and abuse, which is not often covered in competing textbooks. 

  • Numerous case studies are included in each chapter to highlight key or notorious criminal cases related to drugs and crime, giving readers real-life occurrences that connect with the concepts being presented. 
  • Focus On An Issue box highlights current controversies in each chapter, such as the disparity in punishment for crack and powder cocaine, the prosecution of pregnant women for abusing illegal drugs, or the unintended consequences of the war on drugs, to stimulate class discussion and critical thinking.
  • Frequent use of tables, figures, and photos make the material more applied and accessible for students.
  • Boxed inserts in each chapter enhance critical thinking through their emphasis on policy and justice implications.
  • Rapidly changing drug policies are presented to provide readers with the most current guidelines and up-to-date information. Chapters conclude with summaries and lists of discussion questions.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 2

Chapter 6


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