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Educational Assessment
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Educational Assessment
Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability



December 2007 | 664 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Grounded in the real world of public schools and students, this engaging, insightful, and highly readable text introduces the inner-workings of K–12 educational assessment.

There has never been a time when it is more important for educators to have an understanding of testing and assessments. Accountability is now a fact of life for all public school educators, and testing is at the core of all educational assessment programs. It is no longer prudent or even possible for educators to ignore this national zeitgeist. 

Educational Assessment: Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability addresses all of the constructs central to understanding the design, construction and evaluation of educational measures. It goes on to provide students with insight into the link between today's high-stakes testing mandates and the traditions of the past 125 years of "scientific" measurement in the United States. It addresses the problem of understanding and correctly interpreting test scores on local, statewide, national, and international assessments. It also addresses how certain issues such as institutionalized cheating, test preparation, and individual differences among students and their families influence test score outcomes.

Key Features

  • Covers traditional topics in an approachable and understandable way: Reliability, validity, performance assessments, standardized achievement tests, and many more topics are included.
  • Analyzes and interprets "hot-button" issues of today's complex measurement concerns: The score-gap, high-stakes testing, grade retention, drop-out crises, "academic redshirting,", diversity, family influence, and educational technology, are examined.
  • Relates theory to practice: Each chapter includes relevant real-life examples and case studies to demonstrate how the technical-measurement principles impact those involved.
  • Addresses the needs of diverse students: Issues related to students with special needs and the testing of English Language Learners are discussed.

Ancillaries

  • Instructors' Resources on CD-Rom include PowerPoint slides, Web resources, suggested answers for each chapter's discussion questions, and a sample syllabus. The CD also includes Brownstone's Diploma Test Bank software so that instructors can create, customize, and deliver tests. Qualified instructors can contact Customer Care at 1-800-818-SAGE (7243) from 6am - 5pm PT to request a copy.
  • A web-based Student Study Site at www.sagepub.com/wrightstudy provides chapter objectives, flash cards, and practice tests.

Intended Audience: Educational Assessment: Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability has been written to meet the needs of students in graduate programs of special education, reading, school counseling, school social work, curriculum supervision, or administration. Providing grounding in all aspects of measurement, this book is perfect for undergraduate and graduate courses such as Educational Tests and Measurements, Assessment in Education, and Student Assessment.


 
Preface
 
SECTION ONE: EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT IN AMERICA: HISTORY, GOALS, AND APPLICATIONS
 
1. Issues and Measurement Practices in the Schools
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Accountability, Assessment, and Testing

 
Why do we Test?

 
Types and Varieties of Tests

 
Assumptions Made by Test Developers

 
Trends in Testing

 
Law and Testing

 
Case Law

 
Educational Ethics and Testing

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
2. History of Testing in American Education
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Scientific Measurement and Racism

 
The Next Generation

 
Single Factor Models

 
Multiple Factor Models

 
Contemporary Public Schools

 
Winds of Change

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
SECTION TWO: THE MEANING AND QUALITY OF TEST SCORES
 
3. The Measurement and Description of Variables
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Variables

 
Central Tendency

 
Normal Distribution

 
Variation and Variance

 
Standard Scores

 
Variation

 
Correlation

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
4. Reliability as a Measure of Test Quality
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Reliability

 
Internal Consistency

 
Gains and Losses

 
Standard Error of Measurement

 
Factors with an Impact on Reliability

 
Reliability of Cut Scores

 
Reliability of Performance Tasks and Criterion Tests

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
5. Validity as a Measure of Test Quality
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Validity: The Traditional Context of Validity

 
Contemporary View

 
Comparison Groups

 
Test Bias and Fairness

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
SECTION THREE: TESTING OF STUDENTS BY CLASSROOM TEACHERS
 
6. Planning and Constructing Classroom Tests
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Testing and Teaching

 
Formative Tests

 
Summative Evaluations

 
Testing Formats

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
7. Classroom Development and Use of Extended Answer Tests
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Homework

 
Completion or Short Answer

 
The Essay Test

 
Bluffing

 
Essay Test Format

 
Essay Grading

 
The SAT Essay Test

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
8. Item Selection and Analysis
Issues and Themes

 
Classroom Testing

 
A Priori Qualitative Assessment and Analysis of Tests

 
Item Difficulty Index

 
Distracter Analysis

 
Item Analysis with Constructed or Supply Type Items

 
Discrimination

 
Computer Adaptive Testing

 
Item Response Theory (IRT)

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
9. Performance Assessments
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Assessment and Instruction

 
Performance Based Assessments

 
Scoring

 
Portfolios

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
10. Grades, Progress Reports, and Report Cards
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Background and History

 
Purposes of Report Card Grades

 
Student Grades

 
Report Card Comments

 
On-line Report Cards

 
Report Card Grades for the Gifted

 
Grades and Students with Special Needs

 
The Case of Transfer Students

 
Grade Point Average and Class Rank

 
Teacher-Parent Conference

 
Grade Inflation

 
Promotion and Graduation

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
SECTION FOUR: TESTING FOR STUDENT LEARNING, TALENT, APTITUDE, AND SPECIAL NEEDS
 
11. Standardized Measures of Learning
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Explaining Test Scores to Parents

 
Major Achievement Test Batteries

 
State Mandated Assessments

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
12. Testing of Aptitude and Selection
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Aptitude

 
Scholastic Aptitude and Intelligence

 
Training of Test Administrators

 
Tests of Intelligence Administered One-on-One

 
Tests of Intelligence Administered to Groups

 
Group Administered Aptitude Tests

 
Assessment of Talented and Gifted Children

 
Assessment of Aptitude for College Study

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
13. Identification of Learning Problems
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Incidence

 
Informal Screening

 
Instructional Support Team

 
Referral, Assessment, and the IEP Committee

 
Assessment Process

 
Formal Assessments of Attention and Focus

 
AD/HD Measurement Scales

 
Assessments of Reading Problems

 
Early Reading Tests

 
Assessments of Language and Speech Problems

 
Measures for the Identification of Problems Learning Mathematics

 
Individualized Educational Plan

 
Accommodations for Children with Disabilities

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
SECTION FIVE: NO CHILD, TEACHER, OR SCHOOL LEFT BEHIND
 
14. International, National, and Statewide Testing Programs
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
International Comparisons

 
Nation’s Report Card

 
School Assessments

 
No Child Left Behind

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
15. Student, Family, and Teacher Factors in Test Scores
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Students

 
Families

 
Teachers

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
16. Test Preparation for Successful Schools
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Accountability Angst

 
Legal and Ethical Requirements

 
Marginal Ethics

 
Successful Schools

 
Classroom Instruction

 
Architecture and School Design

 
Administration

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
17. Accountability and Evaluation
Issues and Themes

 
Learning Objectives

 
Evaluation Overview

 
Systematic Program Evaluation

 
Steps in a Systematic Evaluation

 
Value-added Evaluation

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
References
 
Glossary
 
Index
 
About the Author

"For one of the only times in my career, and according to my master's students' positive reactions and statements, Wright's text encourages readers to think closely and with high interest about current assessment in education. The book gives educators strong justification and clarification for what they have been thinking about assessment in their classrooms"

Randy Nichols
Brescia University

"This is the best book I’ve found for the Test and Measurements course for school counselors."

Dr. Stacey Solomon
Caldwell College

This book was requested for one course but turned out to be perfect for a more advanced course on individual assessment. This is a great text for any k-16 evaluator.

Dr Paula Dawidowicz
School Of Education, Walden University
October 12, 2012

Very good book, could be supported with better teacher materials.

Dr M. Sencer Corlu
Department of Teaching, Learning and Culture, Texas A & M University - College State
September 6, 2012

This textbook corresponded best with the assessment knowledge and skills needed by K-12 teachers in a master's degree program.

Dr Robert Sweatman
Education Department, Illinois College
January 30, 2012

I like the focus on the whole school environment and how testing fits in historically. I like the clarity of explanations regarding test analysis and construction. I can build on this by adding specific information about music assessments.

Dr Keitha Hamann
School Of Music, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities
September 7, 2011

Covered the material at an appropriated level for first year grad students.

Dr Anita Welch
School Of Education, North Dakota State University
February 22, 2010
Key features
 
  • Designed specifically to meet the needs of advanced certification and graduate students, including those in school administration, reading specialist, and school psychology and counseling programs.
  • Addresses contemporary concerns and trends (including high stakes testing, mandated tests, No Child Left Behind, national testing programs, international achievement comparisons, achievement gap, etc.).
  • Throughout the chapters, sections titled "CASE in POINT" provide real life examples in context.
  • The book provides a powerful research tool in the form of an up-to-date reference section that provides 858 references and 118 URLs.
  • All chapters contain four special sections that will support student learning: Issues and Themes, Learning Objectives, Summary, and Discussion Questions.

For instructors

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