You are here

Educational Research
Share

Educational Research
Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches

Sixth Edition
Experience with SAGE edge


© 2017 | 744 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Assuming no prior knowledge, Educational Research by R. Burke Johnson and Larry Christensen offers a comprehensive, easily digestible introductory research methods textbook for undergraduate and graduate students.  Readers will develop an understanding of the multiple research methods and strategies used in education and related fields; how to read and critically evaluate published research; and the ability to write a proposal, construct a questionnaire, and conduct an empirical research study on their own. Students rave about the clarity of this best seller and its usefulness for their studies, enabling them to become critical consumers and users of research. 

Available with Perusall—an eBook that makes it easier to prepare for class
Perusall is an award-winning eBook platform featuring social annotation tools that allow students and instructors to collaboratively mark up and discuss their SAGE textbook. Backed by research and supported by technological innovations developed at Harvard University, this process of learning through collaborative annotation keeps your students engaged and makes teaching easier and more effective. Learn more
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
Part I: Introduction
 
1 Introduction to Educational Research
Why Study Educational Research?  
Areas of Educational Research  
Examples of Educational Research  
General Kinds of Research  
Basic and Applied Research  
Evaluation Research  
Action Research  
Orientational Research  
Sources of Knowledge  
Experience  
Reasoning  
The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation  
Dynamics of Science  
Basic Assumptions of Science  
Scientific Methods  
Theory  
The Principle of Evidence  
Objectives of Educational Research  
Overview of This Book  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
 
2 Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Characteristics of the Three Research Paradigms  
Quantitative Research Methods: Experimental and Nonexperimental Research  
Variables  
Experimental Research  
Nonexperimental Research  
Qualitative Research Methods  
Phenomenology  
Ethnography  
Narrative Inquiry  
Case Study Research  
Grounded Theory  
Mixed Research (or Mixed Methods Research)  
The Advantages of Mixed Research  
Our Research Typology  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
 
3 Action Research for Lifelong Learning
Defining Action Research  
Origins of Action Research  
Basic Scientific Research Versus Action Research  
Types of Action Research  
The Cycle of Action Research  
Strengths and Weaknesses of Action Research  
Action Research Journaling  
Action Research in the Remaining Chapters of This Book  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Note  
 
Part II: Planning the Research Study
 
4 How to Review the Literature and Develop Research Questions
Sources of Research Ideas  
Everyday Life  
Practical Issues  
Past Research  
Theory  
Ideas That Can’t Be Resolved Through Empirical Research  
Review of the Literature  
Literature Review for Quantitative Research Studies  
Literature Review for Qualitative Research Studies  
Literature Review for Mixed Research Studies  
Sources of Information  
Feasibility of the Study  
Statement of the Research Problem  
Stating a Quantitative Research Problem  
Stating a Qualitative Research Problem  
Stating a Mixed Research Problem  
Statement of the Purpose of the Study  
Statement of Purpose in a Quantitative Study  
Statement of Purpose in a Qualitative Study  
Statement of Purpose in a Mixed Methods Study  
Statement of Research Questions  
Statement of a Quantitative Research Question  
Statement of a Qualitative Research Question  
Statement of Research Questions in Mixed Research  
Formulating Hypotheses  
Consumer Use of the Literature  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
 
5 How to Write a Research Proposal
Framework of the Research Proposal  
Strategies for Writing Each Section of the Research Proposal  
Introduction  
Method  
Research Participants  
Design  
Apparatus and/or Instruments  
Procedure  
Data Analysis  
Abstract  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Proposal Exercise  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
 
6 Research Ethics
What Are Research Ethics?  
Ethical Concerns  
Relationship Between Society and Science  
Professional Issues  
Treatment of Research Participants  
Ethical Guidelines for Research With Humans  
Informed Consent  
Informed Consent and Minors as Research Participants  
Passive Versus Active Consent  
Additional Consent  
Deception  
Freedom to Withdraw  
Protection From Mental and Physical Harm  
Confidentiality, Anonymity, and the Concept of Privacy  
Institutional Review Board  
Ethical Issues in Electronic Research  
Informed Consent and Internet Research  
Privacy and Internet Research  
Debriefing and Internet Research  
Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report  
Authorship  
Writing the Research Report  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
 
Part III: Foundations of Research
 
7 Standardized Measurement and Assessment
Defining Measurement  
Scales of Measurement  
Nominal Scale  
Ordinal Scale  
Interval Scale  
Ratio Scale  
Assumptions Underlying Testing and Assessment  
Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure  
Overview of Reliability and Validity  
Reliability  
Validity  
Using Reliability and Validity Information in Your Research  
Educational and Psychological Tests  
Intelligence Tests  
Personality Tests  
Educational Assessment Tests  
Sources of Information About Tests  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Notes  
 
8 How to Construct a Questionnaire
What Is a Questionnaire?  
Principles of Questionnaire Construction  
Principle 1. Make sure the questionnaire items match your research objectives.  
Principle 2. Understand your research participants.  
Principle 3. Use natural and familiar language.  
Principle 4. Write items that are clear, precise, and relatively short.  
Principle 5. Do not use “leading” or “loaded” questions.  
Principle 6. Avoid double-barreled questions.  
Principle 7. Avoid double negatives.  
Principle 8. Determine whether an open-ended or a closed-ended question is needed.  
Principle 9. Use mutually exclusive and exhaustive response categories for closed-ended questions.  
Principle 10. Consider the different types of response categories available for closed-ended questionnaire items.  
Principle 11. Use multiple items to measure abstract constructs.  
Principle 12. Consider using multiple methods when measuring abstract constructs.  
Principle 13. Use caution if you reverse the wording in some of the items to prevent response sets in multi-item scales.  
Principle 14. Develop a questionnaire that is properly organized and easy for the participant to use.  
Principle 15. Always pilot test your questionnaire.  
Putting It All Together  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercise  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Notes  
 
9 Methods of Data Collection
Tests  
Technology and Tests  
Questionnaires  
Technology and Questionnaires  
Interviews  
Technology and Interviews  
Quantitative Interviews  
Qualitative Interviews  
Focus Groups  
Technology and Focus Groups  
Observation  
Quantitative Observation  
Qualitative Observation  
Visual Data  
Constructed and Secondary or Existing Data  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
 
10 Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Terminology Used in Sampling  
Random Sampling Techniques  
Simple Random Sampling  
Systematic Sampling  
Stratified Random Sampling  
Cluster Random Sampling  
Nonrandom Sampling Techniques  
Convenience Sampling  
Quota Sampling  
Purposive Sampling  
Snowball Sampling  
Random Selection and Random Assignment  
Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used  
Sampling in Qualitative Research  
Sampling in Mixed Research  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Notes  
 
11 Validity of Research Results in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research
Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research  
Internal Validity (i.e., Causal Validity)  
Two Major Types of Causal Relationships  
Criteria for Inferring Causation  
Threats to Internal Validity in Single-Group Designs  
Threats to Internal Validity in Multigroup Designs  
External Validity (i.e., Generalizing Validity)  
Population Validity  
Ecological Validity  
Temporal Validity  
Treatment Variation Validity  
Outcome Validity  
Construct Validity  
Treatment Diffusion  
Statistical Conclusion Validity  
Research Validity (or “Trustworthiness”) in Qualitative Research Descriptive Validity  
Interpretive or Emic Validity  
Theoretical Validity  
Internal Validity  
External Validity  
Research Validity (or “Legitimation”) in Mixed Research  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Notes  
 
Part IV: Selecting a Research Method
 
Section A: Quantitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
 
12 Experimental Research: Weak and Strong Designs
The Experiment  
Experimental Research Settings  
Field Experiment  
Laboratory Experiment  
Internet Experiment  
Independent Variable Manipulation  
Ways to Manipulate an Independent Variable  
Control of Confounding Variables  
Random Assignment  
Matching  
Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant  
Building the Extraneous Variable Into the Research Design  
Analysis of Covariance  
Counterbalancing  
Experimental Research Designs  
Weak Experimental Research Designs  
Strong Experimental Research Designs  
Factorial Designs  
Repeated-Measures Designs  
Factorial Designs Based on a Mixed Model  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Notes  
 
13 Experimental Research: Quasi and Single-Case Designs
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs  
Nonequivalent Comparison-Group Design  
Interrupted Time-Series Design  
Regression-Discontinuity Design  
Single-Case Experimental Designs  
A-B-A and A-B-A-B Designs  
Multiple-Baseline Design  
Changing-Criterion Design  
Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Note  
 
14 Nonexperimental Quantitative Research
Steps in Nonexperimental Research  
Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research  
Simple Cases of Nonexperimental Quantitative Research  
Three Required Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships  
Applying the Three Required Conditions for Causation in Nonexperimental Research  
Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research (i.e., How to Design Strong Nonexperimental Research)  
Matching  
Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant  
Statistical Control  
Interlude (The Study of Causal Relationships in Epidemiology)  
Classifying Nonexperimental Research by Time and Research Objective  
The Time Dimension in Nonexperimental Research  
Cross-Sectional Research  
Longitudinal Research  
Retrospective Research  
The Research Objective Dimension in Nonexperimental Research  
Descriptive Nonexperimental Research  
Predictive Nonexperimental Research  
Explanatory Nonexperimental Research  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Notes  
 
Section B: Qualitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches
 
15 Narrative Inquiry and Case Study Research
Narrative Inquiry  
I. Introduction: The Importance of Coming to Terms and Definitions  
II. Designing a Narrative Study  
III. Narrative Inquiry: So Much More Than Telling Stories  
Case Study Research  
What Is a Case?  
Types of Case Study Research Designs  
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Note  
 
16 Phenomenology, Ethnography, and Grounded Theory
Phenomenology  
Examples of Phenomenology  
Types of Phenomenology  
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing  
Ethnography  
The Idea of Culture  
Examples of Ethnographic Research  
Types of Ethnographic Research  
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing  
Grounded Theory  
Characteristics of a Grounded Theory  
Example of a Grounded Theory  
Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Note  
 
Section C: Mixed Methods Research: Many Approaches
 
17 Mixed Research
The Research Continuum  
Types of Mixed Research Designs  
Examples of Qualitatively Driven, Quantitatively Driven, and Equal-Status or Interactive Studies  
Stages of the Mixed Research Process  
Step 1. Determine Whether a Mixed Design Is Appropriate  
Step 2. Determine the Rationale for Using a Mixed Design  
Step 3. Select or Construct the Mixed Research Design and Mixed Sampling Design  
Step 4. Collect Data  
Step 5. Analyze the Data  
Step 6. Continually Validate the Data  
Step 7. Continually Interpret the Data and Findings  
Step 8. Write the Research Report  
Limitations of Mixed Research  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
 
Part V: Analyzing the Data
 
18 Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics  
Frequency Distributions  
Graphic Representations of Data  
Bar Graphs  
Histograms  
Line Graphs  
Scatter Plots  
Measures of Central Tendency  
Mode  
Median  
Mean  
A Comparison of the Mean, Median, and Mode  
Measures of Variability  
Range  
Variance and Standard Deviation  
Standard Deviation and the Normal Distribution  
Measures of Relative Standing  
Percentile Ranks  
z Scores  
Examining Relationships Among Variables  
Contingency Tables  
Regression Analysis  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Notes  
 
19 Inferential Statistics
Sampling Distributions  
Sampling Distribution of the Mean  
Estimation  
Point Estimation  
Interval Estimation  
Hypothesis Testing  
Null and Alternative Hypotheses  
Directional Alternative Hypotheses  
Examining the Probability Value and Making a Decision  
The Hypothesis-Testing Decision Matrix  
Controlling the Risk of Errors  
Hypothesis Testing in Practice  
t Test for Independent Samples  
One-Way Analysis of Variance  
Post Hoc Tests in Analysis of Variance  
t Test for Correlation Coefficients  
t Test for Regression Coefficients  
Chi-Square Test for Contingency Tables  
Other Significance Tests  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Notes  
 
20 Data Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed Research
Interim Analysis  
Memoing  
Analysis of Visual Data  
Data Entry and Storage  
Segmenting, Coding, and Developing Category Systems  
Inductive and A Priori Codes  
Co-Occurring and Facesheet Codes  
First-Stage and Second-Stage Coding  
Enumeration  
“Themeing the Data” and Creating Hierarchical Category Systems  
Identifying Relationships Among Categories  
Drawing Diagrams  
Corroborating and Validating Results  
Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis  
Data Analysis in Mixed Research  
Mixed Analysis Matrix  
Analytical Procedures in Mixed Data Analysis  
Constructing Joint Displays in Mixed Data Analysis  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Terms  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercise  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
Notes  
Chapter 20 Appendix: Additional Types of Codes for Qualitative Research  
 
Part VI: Writing the Research Report
 
21 How to Prepare a Research Report and Use APA Style Guidelines
General Principles Related to Writing the Research Report (I)  
Language (I.1)  
Editorial Style (I.2)  
Reference List (I.3)  
Typing (I.4)  
Writing an APA-Style Quantitative Research Report (II)  
Title Page (II.1)  
Abstract (II.2)  
Introduction (II.3)  
Method (II.4)  
Results (II.5)  
Discussion (II.6)  
References (II.7)  
Footnotes (II.8)  
Tables (II.9)  
Figures (II.10)  
Example of an APA-Style Manuscript  
Writing Qualitative Research Reports  
Writing Mixed Research Reports  
Action Research Reflection  
Summary  
Key Term  
Discussion Questions  
Research Exercises  
Proposal Exercises  
Relevant Internet Sites  
Recommended Reading  
 
Appendix: Citations for Journal Articles Noted in the Margins
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Author Index
 
Subject Index
 
About the Authors

Supplements

Instructor Site

SAGE edge for Instructors supports your teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.

 

  • A Microsoft® Word test bank, is available containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students' progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific
  • Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content and features.
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts on a chapter-by-chapter basis to help with preparation with lecture and classroom discussion.
  • Lively and stimulating ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group projects.
  • Author created teaching tips are provided for insights on how to best reinforce active learning. The activities apply to individual or group projects.
  • Suggested answers to review questions in the text are included to help with self-review of the material.
  • Carefully selected, web-based video links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics. When relevant, related questions for discussion are included.
  • Web Resources direct both instructors and students to useful and current web sites, along with creative activities to extend and reinforce learning or allow for further research on important chapter topics
  • Datasets and SPSS Exercises are provided for additional hands-on practice.
  • Learning Objectives reinforce the most important materials
student site

SAGE edge for students helps improve performance, enhance learning, and offers a personalized approach to coursework in an easy-to-use environment.

 

  • A customized action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience.
  • Learning Objectives reinforce the most important materials
  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course materials.
  • Carefully selected, web-based video links feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics. When relevant, related questions for discussion are included.
  • Web Resources direct both instructors and students to useful and current web sites, along with creative activities to extend and reinforce learning or allow for further research on important chapter topics
  • Suggested answers to review questions in the text are included to help with self-review of the material.
  • Datasets and SPSS Exercises are provided for additional hands-on practice. 
Key features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

  • The historical research chapter has been moved to the student website to shorten the book while keeping the material available.
  • Includes new sections on purpose statement and research questions for mixed methods research as well as a brief discussion of meta-synthesis.
  • Includes several new sections, including Technology and Tests, Technology and Questionnaires, Technology and Interviews, and Technology and Focus Groups.
  • Emphasizes the need (and how) to control for extraneous variables in nonexperimental quantitative research. ·         Includes more material on how to organize a mixed methods research report. 

KEY FEATURES:

  • Attention-grabbing, current event chapter opening vignettes and examples throughout the book engage student interest.
  • While many texts only offer one method, this book gives a balanced coverage of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research as well as their strengths and appropriateness, showing each has merit when employed properly.
  • A conversational and accessible writing style makes the book fun and easy to read.
  • Review question checkpoints are strategically placed to bolster student comprehension of key topics.
  • All key concepts, definitions, and icons that connect the reader to journal articles and tools and tips provided on the companion website are included in the margins for quick and easy reference. 

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 3

Chapter 8


Preview this book

For instructors

Please select a format:

Select a Purchasing Option

Electronic version
Prices from
$72.00*
*180 day rental