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Hate Crimes

Hate Crimes
Causes, Controls, and Controversies

Fourth Edition

April 2017 | 440 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

The Fourth Edition of Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies takes a multidisciplinary approach that allows students to explore a broad scope of hate crimes. Drawing on recent developments, topics, and current research, this book examines the issues that foster hate crimes while demonstrating how these criminal acts impact individuals, as well as communities. Students are introduced to the issue through first-person vignettes—offering a more personalized account of both victims and perpetrators of hate crimes. Packed with the latest court cases, research, and statistics from a variety of scholarly sources, the Fourth Edition is one of the most comprehensive and accessible textbooks in the field.

Second Edition Preface
Third Edition Preface
Fourth Edition Preface
1. The Whys and Hows of Hate Crime Laws
Overview of This Book  
Goals of This Book  
Punishing Hate Before Hate Crime Laws  
Arguments for Having Hate Crime Laws  
The Birth of Hate Crimes  
Hate Crime Laws Today  
Hate Speech  
Discussion Questions  
Internet Exercises  
Suggested Readings  
2. The Hate Debate: Constitutional and Policy Problems
Hate Crime Laws and the Constitution  
Which Groups Should Be Protected?  
Identifying and Prosecuting Hate Crimes  
Paradoxical Effects of Hate Crime Laws  
Discussion Questions  
Internet Exercises  
Suggested Readings  
3. Committing Hate: Who and Why
The Offender Profile  
The Psychology of Prejudice  
What Makes a Bigot?  
Hate Crime and Terrorism  
Why Do People Join Organized Hate Groups?  
Discussion Questions  
Internet Exercises  
Suggested Readings  
4. Organized Hate
What Is a Hate Group?  
Hate Group Typologies  
Major American Hate Groups  
Hate Group Ideologies  
Hate Group Recruitment and Defection  
Hate Group Activities  
Women in Organized Hate  
Discussion Questions  
Internet Exercises  
Suggested Readings  
5. Hate Crime Victims
Problems in Identifying Hate Crime Victims  
Official Hate Crime Data  
Advocacy Group Data  
Hate Crimes Against African Americans  
Anti-Semitic Hate Crimes  
Hate Crimes Against LGBT People  
Anti-Muslim Hate Crimes  
Other Victims  
Discussion Questions  
Internet Exercises  
Suggested Readings  
6. Fighting Hate
The Psychology of Reducing Prejudice  
Antihate Groups  
Government Initiatives for Fighting Hate  
Other Antihate Approaches  
Dealing With Hate Crime Offenders  
Assessing Efforts to Fight Hate  
Discussion Questions  
Internet Exercises  
Suggested Readings  
7. Global Hate: International Problems and Solutions
Distinguishing Hate Crimes From Other Events  
The Narrow Study of Global Hate  
The Rise of Nationalism and the Radical Right  
Five Countries’ Approaches to Hate Crimes  
A Global Hate Network  
Policing Hate Across Borders  
Discussion Questions  
Internet Exercises  
Suggested Readings  
8. The Future of Hate
New Research  
Better Data Collection  
Law Enforcement Responses  
Globalized Hate  
Fighting Hate  
Discussion Questions  
Internet Exercises  
Appendix A: Selected International Hate Crime Laws
Appendix B: Selected Resources on Hate Crimes
Appendix C: Film Suggestions
About the Author
Key features


  • The Fourth Edition features expanded coverage of hate crime victims, especially immigrants, transgender people, and Muslims.
  • Several new Narrative Portraits have been included to feature first-hand accounts from a hate speech victim, a gay police officer, and a Croatian LGBT activist.
  • The entire text has been updated to reflect new laws and court cases, the latest research, and the most recent statistics.
  • Discussion of current events has been incorporated, including the Pulse nightclub mass murder, the Charleston mass murder, and political activities in the United States and elsewhere.
  • Several sections have been expanded in light of recent events or new research. Among these are examinations of the links between hate crime and bullying; the relationship between hate crime, terrorism, and mass murder; and the role of organized political activity in supporting hate crime.
  • The box on Randal Lee Krager, who was accused of a hate crime in Oregon, now includes a response from Mr. Krager himself.
  • The book also features updated pedagogical features such as expanded discussion questions, new internet exercises, suggested readings, and additional suggested films.


  • Updated cases, statutes, statistics, and references to current events (including homelessness, hate crime laws, and immigrants as targets of hate) make the book's content both timely and relevant.
  • The text incorporates the most current legal developments and social research, as well as recent events of interest to readers.
  • Special interest boxes focus on riveting, student-centered topics such as hate on campus, examples of state hate crime laws, "classics" of extremist literature, and how to start your own anti-hate campaign.
  • Narrative Portraits, many commissioned specifically for this text, offer a personalized account of both victims and perpetrators of hate crimes, as well as individuals who are active in the fight against hate crimes.
  • Extensive end-of-chapter pedagogy includes chapter conclusions, discussion questions, and Internet exercises (many of which have been updated) to help students master the material.
  • An updated appendix includes a list of recommended films that reinforce key concepts and themes.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

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