You are here

Healthcare Informatics and Information Synthesis
Share

Healthcare Informatics and Information Synthesis
Developing and Applying Clinical Knowledge to Improve Outcomes


December 2001 | 704 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

"Comprehensive, thoughtful, and well-organized . . . an excellent guide to searching, evaluating, organizing, and reporting the results of information syntheses."
--CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

As healthcare policy and practice turn toward the use of evidence-based medicine, there is a heightened need for resources that cover the process of research synthesis for the purpose of healthcare outcome improvement. Healthcare Informatics and Information Synthesis integrates the conceptual and procedural dimensions of research synthesis in each of the five stages of the process to produce step-by-step instructions for clinically applicable research syntheses. Explicit instructions are given for tasks ranging from computing a kappa to aggregating effect sizes. The authors provide seven detailed meta-analytic examples that cover a variety of data types, ranging from mean differences to odds ratios, allowing the reader to replicate the results exactly.

The book includes a compendium of Internet sources and addresses as well as several ready-to-use forms to assist the reader in the administrative process of conducting a review.

Personnel in all healthcare domains, including practitioners, researchers, quality improvement professionals, educators, administrators, students, and consumer information writers will find this an invaluable resource.


 
About the Authors
 
Foreword: How to Read This Book
 
1. Introduction: Healthcare Information Synthesis and Informatics
Section A. Fundamental Goals of This Book

 
Section B. Basic Concepts: 'Information Synthesis' and ' Healthcare Informatics'

 
Section C. Organization of This Book

 
Section D. Information Synthesis Methods Literature

 
Section E. Synthesis Evaluation Criteria

 
Section F. Potential Contributions of This Book

 
Summary

 
 
STAGE I: PLANNING AND PREPARATION
 
2. Synthese Planning Prerequisites and Conceptual Issues
Section A. Information Synthesis and Resource Constraints

 
Section B. Informatics and Internet Background

 
Section C. Alternative Synthesis Designs to Consider

 
Section D. Formulation of Synthesis Topic and Model

 
Section E. Synthesis Audience and Their Needs

 
Section F. Linking Synthesis to Healthcare Outcomes Improvement

 
Section G. Final Project Planning Issues

 
Summary

 
 
3. Procedures for Synthesis Planning and Preparation
Procedure A. Formulate Topic by Group Consensus

 
Procedure B. Establish a Project Plan

 
Procedure C. Obtain Informatics Resources

 
Procedure D. Recruit and Train Project Staff

 
Procedure E. Organize Project Files

 
Procedure F. Finalize Preparations

 
Products of the Procedures in Chapter 3

 
Summary

 
 
4. Evaluation and Improvement of Stage I
Procedure A. Assess and Enhance Documentation Adequacy

 
Procedure B. Assess and Enhance Clinical Significance

 
Procedure C. Assess and Enhance Scientific Soundness

 
Procedure D. Assess and Enhance Cost-Effectiveness

 
Summary

 
 
STAGE II: DATABASE DEVELOLPMENT
 
5. Conceptual Issues in Database Development
Section A. Bias

 
Section B. Levels of Information Soundness

 
Section C. Strategic Searth Considerations

 
Section D. Generic Sources of Halth Science Information

 
Section E. Fugitive Literature

 
Summary

 
 
6. Healthcare Information Search Procedures
Procedure A. Search Prepaation Update

 
Procedure B. Initial Search Iterations

 
Procedure C. Subsequent Iterations

 
Procedure D. Search Termination

 
Summary

 
 
7. Evaluation and Improvement of Stage II
Procedure A. Assess and Enhance Documentation Adequacy

 
Procedure B. Assess and Enhance Clinical Significance

 
Procedure C. Assess and Enhance Scientific Soundness

 
Procedure D. Assess and Enhance Cost-Effectiveness

 
Summary

 
 
STAGE III: DATABASE VALIDATION
 
8. Data Extraction and Coding
Section A. Theoretical Issues in Data Extracting and Coding

 
Section B. Procedures for Extracting and Coding Data

 
Summary

 
 
9. Princip0les of Information Validation
Section A. Importance of Validation of Individual Studies

 
Section B. Causes of Poor Scientific Quality in Published Research

 
Section C. Analysis of Quantitative Validity

 
Section D. Analysis of Qualitative Validity

 
Section E. Use of Validated Information for Synthesis

 
Summary

 
 
10. Procedures for Database Validation
Procedure A. Categorize Studies by Research Design

 
Procedure B. Develop Validation Protocols

 
Procedure C. Select and Train Reviewers

 
Procedure D. Calibrate and Standardize Validity Ratings

 
Procedure E. Validate Literature for Synthesis

 
Summary

 
 
11, Evaluation and Improvement of Stage III
Procedure A. Assess and Enhance Validation of Database Documentation Adequacy

 
Procedure B. Assess and Enhance Validation of Database Clinical Significance

 
Procedure C. Assess and Enhance Validation of Database Scientific Soundness

 
Procedure D. Assess and Enhance Validation of Database Cost-Effectiveness

 
Summary

 
 
STAGE IV: INFORMATION ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS
 
12. Basic Statistics for Quantitative Synthesis
Section A. Basic Statistical Concepts

 
Section B. Effect Sizes; Calculation and Use

 
Section C. Hypothesis Testing in Meta-Analysis

 
Summary

 
 
13. Conceptual Aspects of Meta-Analysis
Section A. Designing Multivariate Models

 
Section B. Selecting Effect Size Index

 
Section C. Managing Missing Data

 
Section D. Managing Artifacts and Biases

 
Section E. Heterogeneity of Effect Sizes Among Studies

 
Section F. Combining Effect Sizes

 
Section G. Sensitively Analysis

 
Summary

 
 
14. Step-by-Step Procedures for Meta-Analysis
Procedure A. Develop a Strategic Plan

 
Procedure B. Implement One of Seven Variations of a Meta-Analysis

 
Procedure C. Conduct a Sensitivity Analysis

 
Summary

 
 
15. Evaluation and Improvement of Stage IV Results
Procedure A. Assess and Enhance Documentation Adequacy

 
Procedure B. Assess and Enhance Clinical Importance

 
Procedure C. Assess and Enhance Scientific Soundness

 
Procedure D. Assess and Enhance Cost-Effectiveness

 
Summary

 
 
STAGE V: SYNTHESIS REPORT COMPLETION AND EVALUATION
 
16. Synthesis Manuscript Preparation Primer
Procedure A. Prepare to Write Synthesis Manuscript

 
Procedure B. Write Body of Synthesis Report

 
Procedure C. Write Front and Trailing Matter for a Journal Article

 
Procedure D. Write Front and Trailing Matter for a Book

 
Summary

 
 
17. Applying Synthesis Results for Healthcare Outcomes Improvement
Procedure A. Coping With the Difficulty of Behavioral Change and Diffusion of Innovation

 
Procedure B. Avoiding Conflicts of Interest and Hazards of Science Propaganda

 
Procedure C. Achieving Healthcare Outcomes Improvement

 
Summary

 
 
18. Evaluation and Refinement of Synthesis Report
Procedure A. Understanding Considerations for Project Finalization

 
Procedure B. Finalizaing the Synthesis Project

 
Procedure C. Self-Assessing the Final Synthesis

 
Procedure D. Has Your Final Product Been Worth the Effort and Cost Involved?

 
Summary

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index
 
Synopsis of Compendium
Summary

 

“Comprehensive, thoughtful, and well-organized . . . an excellent guide to searching, evaluating, organizing, and reporting the results of information syntheses.”

CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

Preview this book

For instructors

To inquire about the availability of this title for review (print and/or digital), please contact your local sales representative or call (800) 818-7243.

Select a Purchasing Option

ISBN: 9780761908241
$200.00