About the Author
1. A Brief History of the Internet
The infancy of the internet (1963–1984)
The period of growth and early regulation (1984–2000)
The Securitization and Militarization of Cyberspace (2000–2012)
The Era of Surveillance and Big Data (2008–present)
2. The Internet, Technology Studies, and International Relations
Who decides what a technology is for?
Critical Issues: What are Digital Human Rights?
People and Places: The Great Firewall of China
A World Apart or an Extension of Terrestrial Space?
People and Places: What Is the Dark Web?
3. A Realist View of Cyberspace
The Foundations of the Interstate System: A Quick Review
A Realist View of Cyberthreat
People and Places: What Is the Fifth Domain of Warfare?
Critical Issues: Measuring Cyber capability
Tools of the Trade: Hacks, Spoofs, and Computer Network Exploitation (CNE)
Constructing Alliances in Cyberspace
The Beginning of Cyberwar
People and Places: The First Cyber Attack—Stuxnet
4. Liberal Internationalism, Cooperation, and Regimes
What Is Liberal Internationalism?
Liberal Internationalism in Cyberspace
How do states cooperate to regulate cyberspace?
People and Places: ASEAN’s Cybersecurity Regime
Opposing the Liberal Internationalist View
Critical Issues: Cryptocurrency and the International Economy
People and Places: The 2016 Attack on the Central Bank of Bangladesh
5. Constructivism and the Creation of Cybersecurity Threat
Critical Issues: Politics of the Digital Silk Road
Building a Bridge: Internet Naming and Routing Protocols
Neither a Battlefield Nor a Village: Language “Constructs” the Internet
Building a Bridge: The Physical Structure of the Internet
The Birth of Critical Infrastructure
People and Places: What Is Critical Infrastructure?
The Militarization of Cyberspace
6. Governing the Internet
Norms and Cyberspace Norms
The Cyber Sovereignty Position
Russia’s Cyber Realist View of Cyberspace
Global Governance in Cyberspace
Can International Norms regarding Human Rights Be Grafted onto Cyberspace?
Does the Internet Encourage Crime?
The State’s Role in Combating Cybercrime
Crime as a Social Construct
Critical issues: Should People and Organizations Be “Banned” from the Internet?
An International Convention on Cybercrime?
Regulation and Responsibility: Who Is Liable?
States and Firms Cooperate: The Example of a Botnet Takedown
The Rise of Anticipatory Policing
But Is It a Crime? The Case of WikiLeaks
8. Private Actors in Cyberspace
What are Technology Actors?
Are Technology Actors Competitors to States within the International System?
Technology Actors as Gatekeepers
Technology Actors as Platforms
Technology Actors, Responsibility, and Liability
What Is Corporate Social Responsibility?
Critical Issues: Introducing the BAT: Monopoly Technology Actors in China
Is Facebook a Monopoly, and Does It Need to Be Broken Up?
9. States and Private Actors Cooperating in Cyberspace
What are Public-Private Partnerships?
The Emergence of PPPs in the Cybersecurity Arena
PPPs and the Conduct of Cyberwar
Critiquing PPPs: Is What’s Good for General Motors Also Good for America?
Platforms as Foreign Policy Actors Today
International Legal Challenges in Cloud Computing
10. Ethics, Norms, and Rules
Ethical Lenses for Considering Cyber Values
Critical Issues: Information Privacy
The Emergence of Cyber Norms
11. Cyber Conflict
Critical Issues: Space Security
Critical Issues: Who Is Winning the Cyber Arms Race?
Is Cyberwar Illegal or Unethical?
Creating International Rules Governing CyberWarfare
12. Looking toward the Future
What Is an Emerging Technology?
Selected Future Challenges: Big Data
Critical Issues: Quantum Computing
Selected Future Challenges: Artificial Intelligence
Critical Issues: The Politics of Neural Networks
Critical Issues: Should the United Nations Ban Autonomous Weapons?
Critical Issues: Smart Cities