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Australian Journal of Management

Australian Journal of Management

Published in Association with UNSW Business School

eISSN: 13272020 | ISSN: 03128962 | Current volume: 49 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: Quarterly

The Australian Journal of Management was founded at the fledgling Australian Graduate School of Management in 1976. The foundation editor Ray Ball was followed by Chris Adam, John Conybeare, the late Vic Taylor, Phillip Yetton, John Roberts, Robert Marks, Baljit Sidhu and Jane Baxter.

The objectives of the Australian Journal of Management are to encourage and publish research in the field of management. The terms management and research are both broadly defined. The former includes the management of firms, groups, industries, regulatory bodies, government, and other institutions. The latter encompasses both discipline- and problem-based research. Consistent with the policy, the Australian Journal of Management publishes research in accounting, applied economics, finance, industrial relations, political science, psychology, statistics, and other disciplines, provided the application is to management, as well as research in areas such as marketing, corporate strategy, operations management, organisation development, decision analysis, and other problem-focused paradigms.

The Australian Journal of Management is interested in original, innovative and highly rigorous research. The domain of study (be it defined by country, management problem, or methodological approach) is much less important than quality and interest to both an academic readership and, preferably, a sophisticated practitioner one.

What distinguishes the Australian Journal of Management from other journals is its emphasis on general management. In practice, this means that high quality articles within the discipline areas listed below will be entertained while cross-disciplinary approaches, addressing cross-disciplinary problems, or with cross-disciplinary managerial implications will be particularly well received.

Another characteristic of the Australian Journal of Management is that of relevance. Articles will be more academically sophisticated than industry-targeted management journals but may share the objective of having a contribution that is relevant to a practitioner audience. Of course, relevant, and supportable managerial implications does not mean that the article needs to be written for a lay audience. Implications and writing style are two different issues.

We strongly prefer papers that explain their main intuition, logic, and implications in clear and concise English. Importantly, papers must be written in a transparent and accessible manner and where necessary, we recommend authors use the services of a professional editor for English expression and grammar.

If you have any queries you wish to direct to the Editor-in-Chief, please contact Yichelle Zhang in the first instance.

All issues of Australian Journal of Management are available online

The objectives of the Australian Journal of Management are to encourage and publish research in the field of management. The terms management and research are both broadly defined. The former includes the management of firms, groups, industries, regulatory bodies, government, and other institutions. The latter encompasses both discipline and problem-based research. Consistent with the policy, the Australian Journal of Management publishes peer-reviewed research in accounting, applied economics, finance, industrial relations, political science, psychology, statistics, and other disciplines. This is providing that the application is to management and research in areas such as marketing, corporate strategy, operations management, organisation development, decision analysis, and other problem-focused paradigms.

Andrew Jackson UNSW Sydney, Australia
Deputy Editors
Muhammad Ali Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Catherine Collins UNSW Sydney, Australia
Chelsea Liu University of Adelaide, Australia
Associate Editors - Accounting and Auditing
Stijn Masschelein University of Western Australia, Australia
Yaowen Shan University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Helen Spiropoulos University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Mark Wilson Australian National University
Associate Editor - Corporate Social Responsibility
Rui Xue La Trobe University, Australia
Associate Editor - Economics
Gautam Bose UNSW Sydney, Australia
Associate Editors - Finance
Philip Gharghori Monash University, Australia
Phong Ngo Australian National University, Australia
Edward Podolski RMIT, Australia
Tom Smith Macquarie University, Australia
Associate Editor - Human Resource Management
Christine Soo University of Western Australia, Australia
Amy Tian Curtin University, Australia
Associate Editor - International Business
Weiting Zheng University of New South Wales, Australia
Associate Editor - Marketing
Yelena Tsarenko Monash University, Australia
Natalina Zlatevska University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Associate Editor - Information Systems and Operations Management
Sandeep Mysore UNSW Sydney, Australia
Nik Thompson Curtin University, Australia
Associate Editor - Organisational Behaviour
Shenjiang Mo Zhejiang University, China
Helena Nguyen University of Sydney Business School, Australia
Ashlea Troth Griffith University, Australia
Associate Editor - Strategy
Fei Fei Yang East China Normal University, China
Miles Yang Macquarie University, Australia
Editorial Board
Daniela Andrei Curtin University, Australia
Frederik Anseel UNSW Sydney, Australia
Rebecca Bachmann Macquarie University, Australia
Marzena Baker University of Sydney, Australia
Ray Ball University of Chicago, USA
Sarah Bankins Macquarie University, Australia
Henk Berkman University of Auckland, New Zealand
Michael Bradbury Massey University, New Zealand
Philip Brown The University of Western Australia, Australia
Steven Cahan University of Auckland Business School, New Zealand
Mandy Cheng UNSW Sydney, Australia
Mesbahuddin Chowdhury University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Wai Fong Chua The University of Sydney Business School, Australia
Greg Clinch Macquarie University, Australia
Jeff Coulton UNSW Sydney, Australia
Alex Eapen Australian National University, Australia
Michelle Evans University of Melbourne, Australia
Robert Faff University of Queensland, Australia
Kingsley Fong UNSW Sydney, Australia
George Foster Stanford University, USA
Patrick Garcia Macquarie University, Australia
Elliroma Gardiner Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Elizabeth George University of Auckland, New Zealand
Rahul Govind UNSW Sydney, Australia
Mirit Grabarski Lakehead University, Canada
Wayne R Guay University of Pennsylvania, USA
Mariano (Pitosh) Heyden Monash University, Australia
Xu Huang Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Mark Humphrey-Jenner UNSW Sydney, Australia
Denise Jepsen Macquarie University, Australia
Zhou Jiang Flinders University, South Australia
Stewart Jones The University of Sydney Business School, Australia
Sandra Kiffin-Petersen University of Western Australia, Australia
Jimi Kim UNSW Sydney, Australia
Helena Li University of Technology Sydney, Australia
J.T. Li Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
Peter W. Liesch University of Queensland, Australia
Dirk Lindebaum Grenoble University, France
Chuding Ling Renming University, China
Grigorij Ljubownikow University of Auckland, New Zealand
Lingli Luo Zhejiang University, China
Mauricio Marrone Macquarie University, Australia
Christine Mathies UNSW Sydney, Australia
Snejina Michailova University of Auckland Business School, New Zealand
Victor Sojo Monzon University of Melbourne, Australia
Richard Morris UNSW Sydney, Australia
Anish Nagpal University of Melbourne, Australia
Timothy O’Shannassy RMIT, Australia
Shan Pan UNSW Sydney, Australia
Terry Pan Macquarie University, Australia
Andrew Pendleton University of New South Wales, Australia
Matthew Pinnuck University of Melbourne, Australia
Dewan Rahman University of Queensland, Australia
John H. Roberts UNSW Sydney, Australia
Elizabeth Rose University of Otago, New Zealand
Karin Sanders UNSW Sydney, Australia
Sukhbir Sandhu University of South Australia, Australia
Felix Septianto University of Queensland, Australia
Baljit K. Sidhu University of Sydney, Australia
Richard G Sloan University of California, Berkeley, USA
Rajendra K Srivastava Singapore Management University, Singapore
Jo-Ann Suchard UNSW Sydney, Australia
Stephen L Taylor University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Raymond Trau Macquarie University, Australia
Mark Uncles UNSW Sydney, Australia
Martijn Van Der Kamp Monash University, Australia
Terry Walter University of Wollongong, Australia
Karyn Wang University of Sydney, Australia
Liwen Wang Shenzhen University, China
Ross L Watts Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Melissa Wheeler RMIT, Australia
Robert E. Wood University of Melbourne, Australia
Sue Wright University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Fei Fei Yang East China Normal University, China
Philip Yetton UNSW Sydney, Australia
Yumeng Yue University of Edinburgh, UK
Stephen Zeff Rice University, USA
Lin Zhang South China University of Technology, China
Xiaoping Zhao Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Yushu (Elizabeth) Zhu University of Queensland, Australia
  • Anbar Electronic Intelligence
  • Australian Public Affairs Information Service
  • Current Contents / Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • Current Contents/ Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • International Bibliography of the Social Sciences
  • Journal of Economic Literature
  • Journal of Economic Literature (and JEL on CD)
  • Management Contents (USA)
  • Public Affairs Information Service (USA)
  • SciVal
  • Scopus
  • Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)
  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Before uploading your manuscript, please review the following manuscript checklist: Australian Journal of Management’s submissions checklist. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Australian Journal of Management will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and please note that the Australian Journal of Management does not accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research data
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplemental material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to Australian Journal of Management, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article Types

    The Australian Journal of Management publishes original research.  Articles should typically be around 8,000 words, but longer articles may be accepted if the length is relevant to the contribution.  They must be original work and not have been submitted for publication elsewhere.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    The Australian Journal of Management operates a strictly anonymous peer review process in which the reviewer’s name is withheld from the author and, the author’s name from the reviewer. Each manuscript is reviewed by two referees.

    Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication.

    Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    • The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors.
    • The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper.
    • The author has recommended the reviewer.
    • The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution).

    2.2 Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    •    Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input 
    •    Identify any entities that paid for this assistance 
    •    Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.4 Funding

    Australian Journal of Management requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    Australian Journal of Management encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the Sage Journal Author Gateway.

    2.6 Research Data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research 

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Australian Journal of Management and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Australian Journal of Management offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines. 

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files.

    4.4 Reference style

    Australian Journal of Management adheres to the Sage Harvard reference style. View the Sage Harvard guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the Sage Harvard EndNote output file.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Australian Journal of Management is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized. 

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. 

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Australian Journal of Management editorial office as follows:


    The Editor
    The Australian Journal of Management
    UNSW Business School
    UNSW Sydney
    SYDNEY NSW 2052
    Telephone +61 2 9931 9312
    Fax +61 2 9931 9519

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