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Clothing and Textiles Research Journal

Clothing and Textiles Research Journal

Published in Association with International Textile and Apparel Association
Other Titles in:
Business & Management | Design | Textiles

eISSN: 19402473 | ISSN: 0887302X | Current volume: 42 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Quarterly

Clothing and Textiles Research Journal (CTRJ) aims to be the journal of choice among scholars studying clothing, textiles, and related topics across the discipline. The journal publishes impactful scholarship that shapes the discipline. As the official journal of International Textile and Apparel Association Inc, it is peer-reviewed and is published quarterly. CTRJ publishes articles in the following areas:

  • Textile science
  • Apparel science and technology
  • Design
  • Consumer behavior
  • Social psychology
  • History and culture
  • Merchandising and retailing
  • Textile and apparel industry
  • Education and pedagogy

Clothing & Textiles Research Journal is the official publication of the International Textile & Apparel Association, Inc. (ITAA, The ITAA is a professional, educational association composed of scholars, educators, and students in the textile, apparel, and merchandising disciplines in higher education.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

CTRJ invites high-quality manuscripts relevant to the CTRJ audience by demonstrating originality, strong theoretical/conceptual foundation, appropriate methods/approaches, significant results/outcomes, and valuable implications. Please refer to the following description for each track.



Apparel Science and Technology

This track invites research and creative scholarship based on scientific and technology-driven approaches that highlight innovation in digital human-garment-environment interactions, wearable interface and functional/performance apparel for improved user experience and well-being.

Consumer Behavior

This track invites manuscripts aiming to advance understanding consumer behavior. Topics include consumer decision-making processes; psychological, sociological, and situational influences of consumer behavior; emerging consumption phenomena and consumer experiences; and consumer well-being.



This track is for manuscripts to shape the apparel design scholarship by covering topics on the creative and technical design process, design innovation, product design and development for target markets, specification development, design aesthetics, design theory, and related studies.

Education and Pedagogy

This track is for manuscripts that report on the results of a systematic inquiry about student learning in the textiles and clothing field. The research is informed by prior scholarship on teaching and learning and adds to the body of knowledge.

History and Culture


This track includes topics related to the production, distribution, regulation, and/or consumption of fashion in cultural, contemporary, and historic contexts; curatorial research; dress historiography; material culture; portraiture analysis; critical theories; and popular culture.

Merchandising and Retailing

This track invites conceptual and empirical papers which aim to contribute to the general knowledge of retail and merchandising development, by studying all aspects of retail and merchandising in fashion. The study can be positioned in the consumer, employee, and/or business domains.

Social Psychology


This track is for the empirical research about social and psychological aspects of clothing and behavior. The topics for this track include but are not limited to the following: appearance management, identity, group behavior, body image, acculturation, gender and dress, and related studies in clothing and textiles.

Textile and Apparel Industry

This track invites manuscripts about global issues in supply chain management, manufacturing processes, trade/public policy and industry studies, technological innovations in the industry, ethical and sustainable industrial practices, and other relevant industry issues.

Textile Science


This track invites manuscripts on topics related to textile and apparel science. Investigation into properties and behavior of textiles and clothing in order to enhance final performance or sustainability are of particular interest. Papers can relate to functional clothing, high performance textiles and/or textile sustainability through the manipulation of fiber, yarn, fabric, finishing and dyeing technologies. 

Clothing and Textiles Research Journal (CTRJ) aims to be the journal of choice among scholars studying clothing, textiles, and related topics across the discipline. The journal publishes impactful scholarship that shapes the discipline. As the official journal of International Textile and Apparel Association Inc (ITAA), it is peer-reviewed and is published quarterly. The CTRJ home page is found at

Youn-Kyung Lydia Kim University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA
Deputy Editor
Nancy Nelson Hodges University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA
Associate Editors - Apparel Science and Technology
Jessica Ridgway Florida State University, USA
Associate Editors - Consumer Behavior
Jiyun Kang Purdue University, USA
Associate Editor - Design
Casey Stannard Louisiana State University, USA
Associate Editor - Education and Pedagogy
Ellen McKinney Arizona University, USA
Associate Editor - History and Culture
Kelly Reddy-Best Iowa State University, USA
Associate Editors - Merchandising and Retailing
Sejin Ha University of Tennessee, USA
Associate Editors - Social Psychology
Hyo Jung (Julie) Chang Texas Tech University, USA
Associate Editor - Textile and Apparel Industry
Li Zhao University of Missouri, USA
Associate Editors - Textile Science
Rachel McQueen University of Alberta, Canada
Editorial Board
Gargi Bhaduri Kent State University, USA
Martin Bide University of Rhode Island, USA
Sang Eun Byun University of South Carolina, USA
Michelle Childs University of Tennessee, USA
Hae Jin Gam University of North Texas, USA
Adriana Gorea University of Delaware, USA
Saheli Goswami University of Rhode Island, USA
Denise Green Cornell University, USA
Kim Hahn Kent State University, USA
Ran Huang Indiana University, USA
Jonghan Hyun Kent State University, USA
Tun-Min (Catherine) Jai Texas Tech University, USA
Cynthia Jasper University of Wisconsin, USA
Aditya Jayadas Oklahoma State University, USA
Jung-Hwan Kim University of South Carolina, USA
Wi-Suk Kwon Auburn University, USA
Jung Eun Lee Auburn University, USA
Seung-Hee Lee Southern Illinois University, USA
Stacy H. Lee Texas Tech University, USA
Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL), Portugal
Sheng Lu University of Delaware, USA
Yoon Jin Ma Illinois State University, USA
Seoha Min California State Polytechnic University-Pomona, USA
Kristen Morris Colorado State University, USA
Jennifer Ogle Colorado State University, USA
Hyejune Park Oklahoma State University, USA
Sanjukta Pookulangara University of North Texas, USA
Mary Ruppert-Stroescu Washington University, St. Louis, USA
Qiqi Wang 4C Air, USA
Linda Welters University of Rhode Island, USA
Yingying Wu Kansas State University, USA
Jay (Jeong-Ju) Yoo Baylor University, USA
Song-Yi Youn University of Missouri, USA
Ui-Jeen Yu Illinois State University, USA
  • America: History and Life
  • Clarivate Analytics: Current Contents - Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences
  • Elsevier: Engineering Village
  • Family Scholar
  • Journal Citation Reports/Social Sciences Edition
  • PsycINFO
  • Psychological Abstracts
  • SafetyLit
  • Scopus
  • Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science)
  • Textile Technology Index
  • VINITI Abstracts Journal
  • World Textile Abstracts

    Create an Account

    Log into the following web address: Unless you have an account already, the first step will be to set up an author account for the contact author. Click on "Create Account: New Users Click Here" and follow the directions. Your log-in ID is your e-mail address. If you have accessed the system previously but do not know your password, click on "Forgot password" and the system will send you a temporary password to enter the system. Once in the system, you will be prompted to set up a permanent password of your own choosing.

    Please be aware that as you set up your account, certain information is required and you will not be able to proceed with a manuscript submission until the required information is complete. One such requirement is the selection of key words which is intended to identify your areas of expertise; it is not at this point associated with a particular manuscript. Likewise, you are asked as an author to indicate if you have expertise in quantitative, qualitative or both types of research. Again, this is not particular to a given manuscript but to your general expertise. If you become published through CTRJ, this information may be used in considering you as a reviewer of manuscripts.

    Prepare Your Manuscript for Online Submission

    Before a paper is submitted, please note the information below and adjust your manuscript accordingly. Be sure to complete this process because the following guidelines are used to screen all manuscripts, and these guidelines must be met for the manuscript to be sent out for review.

    Manuscript Preparation

    Manuscripts should be prepared using the APA style manual (7th Edition, Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association). All of the manuscript must:

    • Be double-spaced (including references, footnotes, endnote, block quotes, tables and figures of the manuscript).
    • Use Times New Roman, font size 12 for all of the text in the manuscript, headings, figures, and tables.
    • Use left only justification.
    • Indent at the beginning of each paragraph by one-half inch.
    • Not add extra line spaces between paragraphs.
    • Use 1 inch margins on all four sides.
    • Not number the pages.
    • Use continuous line numbering on the main manuscript pages.

    Our review procedures follow the double anonymize practice and thus do not include your name on the abstract, manuscript, or have any self-identifying information within the manuscript. Your manuscript will not be sent out for review if there is any identifying information on the manuscript, abstract, tables, or figures.

    The main manuscript document should include two major sections (in this order): Main Body and References. This will be uploaded as the "main document." Other sections such as tables and figures are uploaded separately from the main document.

    Sections in a manuscript may include the following (in this order): (1) Title page, (2) Abstract and Keywords, (3) Text, (4) Notes, (5) References, (6) Tables, (7) Figures, (8) Appendices, and (9) Biography.

    1. Title page. Upload as title page. Please include the following:

    • Full article title
    • Acknowledgments and credits
    • Each author’s complete name and institutional affiliation(s), address, phone/fax, and email
    • Grant numbers and/or funding information
    • Corresponding author should be noted

    2. Abstract and Keywords. Note: The abstract (150 words) is submitted separately from the main manuscript. Omit author(s)’s names in this process. The abstract will be submitted in the first step of submitting the manuscript; you will type the abstract in the box so labeled in ScholarOneManuscript. Be sure to save before moving to step two. Do not upload the abstract when you are uploading your manuscript.

    The keywords are submitted in the second step of submitting the manuscript. You will select from a list of key words or input your own keywords. Be sure to save before moving forward to step three or going back to step one.

    3. Text. Begin article text (main manuscript) on a new page headed by the full article title.

    a. Headings and subheadings. Subheadings should indicate the organization of the content of the manuscript. Generally, three heading levels are sufficient to organize text.

    Level Format  

    Centered, Bold, Upper & Lowercase

    Text begins as a new paragraph.


    Flush Left, Bold, Upper & Lowercase

    Text begins as a new paragraph.


    Flush Left, Bold Italic, Upper & Lowercase

    Text begins as a new paragraph.


           Indented, Bold, Upper & Lowercase, Ending with a Period. Text begins one space after the period of the heading.

    5        Indented, Bold Italic, Upper & Lowercase, Ending with a Period. Text begins one space after the period of the heading.


    b. Citations. For each text citation there must be a corresponding reference in the reference list, and for each reference in the reference list there must be a corresponding text citation. Corresponding citations and references must have identical spelling and year. If you have three or more authors, ALL in-text citations are First Author et al. – e.g. (Brown et al., 2020). There is no longer a difference between first and subsequent citations.

    Each text citation must include at least two pieces of information, author(s) and year of publication. Following are some examples of text citations:

    (i)Unknown Author: To cite works that do not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the citation parentheses. Example: The findings are based on the study of students learning to format research papers ("Using XXX," 2001).

    (ii) Authors with the Same Last Name: use first initials with the last names to prevent confusion. Example: (L. Hughes, 2001; P. Hughes, 1998)

    (iii) Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: For two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c, etc.) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. The lower-case letters should follow the year in the in-text citation. The lower case letters would also be used in the reference list. Example: Research by Freud (1981a) illustrated that…

    (iv) Personal Communication: For letters, e-mails, interviews, and other person-to-person communication, a personal communication citation should include the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Example: (E. Clark, personal communication, January 4, 2009).

    (v) Unknown Author and Unknown Date: For citations with no author or date, use the title in the signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the citation parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date"). Example: The study conducted by the research division discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

    4. Notes. If explanatory notes are required for your manuscript, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses. The Footnotes should be added at the end of the manuscript after the references. The word “Footnotes” should be centered at the top of the page.

    5. References. Basic rules for the reference list:-

    • The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order according to the authors’ last names.
    • If there is more than one work by the same author, order them according to their publication date – oldest to newest (therefore a 2008 publication would appear before a 2009 publication).
    • When listing multiple authors of a source use “&” instead of “and.”
    • Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if there is one, and any proper names (i.e. only those words that are normally capitalized).
    • Italicize the title of the book, the title of the journal/serial, the volume number of the journal/serial, and the title of the web document.
    • Every citation in the text must have the detailed reference in the Reference section.
    • Every reference listed in the Reference section must be cited in text.
    • Do not use “et al.” in the Reference list at the end; names of all authors of a publication should be listed there. However, for works with more than seven authors list the first six authors' names and then have three ellipses followed by the last author's name. Example: Zed, N., Alright, L., Volks, B., Clark, N., Times, R., Eagle, T., . . . Max, G. (2014).

    Here are a few examples of commonly found references. For more examples please check the APA style manual (7th Ed). Note: Format the references with a hanging indent, the first line of each reference is flush left and the subsequent lines are indented one-half inch.

    • Books:

    Book with publisher

    Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love: A guide to creating iconic brand identities. New Riders.

    Book with editors & edition

    Collins, C., & Jackson, S. (Eds.). (2007). Sport in Aotearoa/New Zealand society. Thomson.

    English, B. (2013). A cultural history of fashion in the 20th and 21st centuries: From catwalk to sidewalk (2nd ed.). Bloomsbury.

    Book having author & publisher the same

    MidCentral District Health Board. (2008). District annual plan 2008/09. Author.

    Chapter in an edited book

    Dear, J., & Underwood, M. (2007). What is the role of exercise in the prevention of back pain? In D. MacAuley & T. Best (Eds.), Evidence-based sports medicine (2nd ed., pp. 257-280). Blackwell.

    • Periodicals:

    Journal article with more than one author (print)

    Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583.

    Journal article – 7 or more authors

    Crooks, C., Ameratunga, R., Brewerton, M., Torok, M., Buetow, S., Brothers, S., … Jorgensen, P. (2010). Adverse reactions to food in New Zealand children aged 0-5 years. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1327).

    • Internet Sources:

    Internet – no author, no date

    What is ecommerce? Launch and grow an online sales channel. (n.d.).

    Internet – Organization / Corporate author

    National Council of Textile Organizations. (2022, May 11). State of the U.S. Textile Industry Address [Press release].

    • Examples of various types of information sources:

    Act (statute/legislation)

    Anti-Smuggling Act, 19 U.S.C. § 1701 (1935).

    Blog post

    Liz and Ellory. (2011, January 19). The day of dread(s) [Web log post].

    Brochure / pamphlet (no author)

    Ageing well: How to be the best you can be [Brochure]. (2009). Ministry of Health.

    Conference Paper

    Williams, J., & Seary, K. (2010). Bridging the divide: Scaffolding the learning experiences of the mature age student. In J. Terrell (Ed.), Making the links: Learning, teaching and high quality student outcomes. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the New Zealand Association of Bridging Educators, 104-116.

    DVD / Video / Motion Picture (including Clickview & Youtube)

    Gardiner, A., Curtis, C., & Michael, E. (Producers), & Waititi, T. (Director). (2010). Boy: Welcome to my interesting world [DVD]. Transmission.


    Ng, A. (2011). Brush with history. Habitus, 13, 83-87.

    Newspaper article (no author)

    Little blue penguins homeward bound. (2011, November 23). Manawatu Standard, p. 5

    Podcast (audio or video)

    April, C., & Cassidy, Z. (Hosts). (2018–present). Dressed: The History of Fashion [Audio podcast]. Dressed Media.

    Software (including apps)

    ZOZO, INC. (2014). WEAR – Fashion Lookbook (Version 6.32.0) [Mobile application software].

    Television programme

    Flanagan, A., & Philipson, A. (Series producers & directors). (2011). 24 hours in A & E [TV series]. Channel 4.

    Thesis (print)

    Smith, T. L. (2008). Change, choice and difference: The case of RN to BN degree programmes for registered nurses [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Victoria University of Wellington.

    Thesis (online)

    Mann, D. L. (2010). Vision and expertise for interceptive actions in sport (Doctoral dissertation, The University of New South Wales).  

    Non-English reference book, title translated in English

    Real Academia Espanola. (2001). Diccionario de la lenguaespanola [Dictionary of the Spanish Language] (22nd ed.). Author.

    IMPORTANT NOTE: To encourage a faster production process of your article, you are requested to closely adhere to the points above for references. Otherwise, it will entail a long process of solving copyeditor’s queries and may directly affect the publication time of your article.

    6. Tables. They should be structured properly and numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text. Also, each table should be placed on a separate page. Each table must have a clear and concise title. When appropriate, use the title to explain an abbreviation parenthetically. Example: Comparison of Median Income of Adopted Children (AC) v. Foster Children (FC). Headings should be clear and brief. Follow APA style manual (7th edition) guidelines; do not include vertical lines in your table. For each table include a callout within the manuscript indicating the approximate location of the table (e.g., Place Table X about here."). Each table should be uploaded separately from the main manuscript.

    7. Figures. They should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include figure captions. Also, each figure should be placed on a separate page. Figures will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially. The figure resolution should be 300dpi at the time of submission. For each figure include a callout within the manuscript indicating the approximate location of the figure (e.g., Place Figure X about here."). Each figure should be uploaded separately from the main manuscript.

    IMPORTANT: PERMISSION- The author(s) are responsible for securing permission to reproduce all copyrighted figures or materials before they are published in CTRJ. A copy of the written permission must be included with the manuscript submission.

    8. Appendices. They should be lettered to distinguish from numbered tables and figures. Include a descriptive title for each appendix (e.g., “Appendix A. Variable Names and Definitions”). Cross-check text for accuracy against appendices. If you include an appendix/appendices it/they will be counted as part of the 30 page maximum manuscript length.

    9. Biography. A biographical sketch(es) (maximum 60 words) should be uploaded for the author(s) during step five, the "File Upload" process. Be sure to identify the biography document/file as "Author bio."

    Uploaded manuscript length. Sage has allowed CTRJ a certain number of pages for each volume (year) so uploaded manuscripts must be no longer than 30 pages (main document with reference list, all tables and figures, and appendix/appendices if appropriate). When the submission is uploaded, each page in the main manuscript document will be counted as one page. Each table and each figure will be counted as one page. For example, a 26-page manuscript, plus two tables, plus two figures, equals a 30-page uploaded manuscript. If your manuscript exceeds this length it will not be reviewed.

    Using AI in Manuscript Preparation

    Sage has provided the guidance regarding the use of AI in authoring manuscripts submitted to the journal articles (

    Authors are required to:

    • Clearly indicate the use of language models in the manuscript, including which model was used and for what purpose. Please use the methods or acknowledgments sections, as appropriate.
    • Verify the accuracy, validity, and appropriateness of the content and any citations generated by language models and correct any errors or inconsistencies.
    • Provide a list of sources used to generate content and citations, including those generated by language models. Double-check citations to ensure they are accurate and are properly referenced.
    • Be conscious of the potential for plagiarism where the large language models (LLM) may have reproduced substantial text from other sources. Check the original sources to be sure you are not plagiarizing someone else’s work.
    • Acknowledge the limitations of language models in the manuscript, including the potential for bias, errors, and gaps in knowledge.
    • Please note that AI bots such as ChatGPT should not be listed as authors on your submission.

    Uploading Your Manuscript

    Once the manuscript is prepared as described above, you can upload it and submit it through your Author Center in the Manuscript Central CTRJ portal. You should be taken to a screen that gives the link to your Author Center when you log into your account or when you complete the set up of your account.

    Enter your Author Center and click on "Submit a Manuscript." The system will ask you for information regarding the manuscript and its authors. The contact author will enter the co-author names e-mail address(es) and that will send a prompt e-mail to the co-author asking him/her to complete the account information. You will be prompted to indicate the manuscript type (this is used to assign the AE) and other details of the manuscript. As you complete the information for the manuscript, you will have a field that allows you to type your cover letter directly into the system or browse and attach one. The cover page with author information is automatically generated as you complete the information about the manuscript, so a separate cover page with author identification is no longer necessary.

    After you have uploaded the various files for your manuscript, you will need to “View Proof” before the system will allow you to submit. The system will then compile the various files into a single pdf file for you to review. If there are any problems with the compiled file, you may remove it, make corrections to the component files, and “View Proof” again. When you are satisfied with the compiled pdf, you are ready to submit the manuscript.

    You may work on your submission in multiple stages by saving but not submitting your work prior to logging out. When you return to work on a manuscript submission that is not complete, you will access the manuscript through the Author Center by clicking on “Unsubmitted Manuscripts.” Once the manuscript submission is complete, you will receive a system-generated e-mail letting you know that the manuscript submission was successful.

    Submitting a Revision

    To submit your revised manuscript, log into and enter your Author Center, where you will find your manuscript title listed under "Manuscripts with Decisions." Under "Actions," click on "Create a Revision." Your manuscript number will be appended to denote a revision.

    When submitting your revised manuscript, we prefer that your response document be copied and pasted into the appropriate dialogue box. In your response to editors and reviewers DO NOT use bolding, different fonts, or different colored fonts to highlight your revised information. DO NOT use tables to indicate comments and responses in table format. All of these types of formatting are not preserved in Manuscript Central when you copy and paste them in the dialogue box. CAPS are preserved. In order to expedite the processing of the revised manuscript, please be as specific as possible in your response to the reviewer(s).

    IMPORTANT: Your original files are available to you when you upload your revised manuscript. Please delete all files that are being replaced with revised files.


    Authors are responsible for determining whether any material submitted is subject to copyright or ownership rights (e.g., quotations, illustrations, trade literature, data), and authors are responsible for obtaining permission to use such material when permission is required. Authors are also responsible for obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval prior to the initiation of the research if human subjects are to be used.

    Review Process

    Each manuscript is reviewed by at least four people: the editor, as associate editor, and two reviewers. The final recommendation is sent to the author(s). Outcomes about each of the decision categories is available here. Reviewers’ comments provide information and suggestions to authors that may be helpful in completing revisions. Authors are given a deadline for returning manuscripts at every stage in the publication process. Following manuscript acceptance and prior to publication, authors will receive galleys to check for errors.

    Authors who would like to refine the use of English in their manuscripts might consider using the services of a professional English-language editing company. We highlight some of these companies at
    Please be aware that Sage has no affiliation with these companies and makes no endorsement of them. An author's use of these services in no way guarantees that his or her submission will ultimately be accepted. Any arrangement an author enters into will be exclusively between the author and the particular company, and any costs incurred are the sole responsibility of the author.

    Note: CTRJ uses American-English language conventions.

    If you or your funder wish your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in Sage Choice, subject to the payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let Sage know directly if you are choosing Sage Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit Sage Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at Sage, including self/author archiving deposits (green open access) visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

    Supplemental Material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    Two-parts Research Manuscripts

    If authors wish to submit two-part research manuscripts, they must submit both manuscripts at the same time with a clear distinction between the objectives of part one and part two. The two manuscripts may have the same goal but should have independent research objectives, and therefore, independent methods, results and contributions must be stated. It will be at the editors’ discretion if the manuscripts will be processed as two parts, need to be made into a single manuscript, or be rejected prior to double anonymized reviews. Two-part papers, if approved for further review, can both be assigned to the same reviewers throughout the double anonymized review processes.”

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