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Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research
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Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research

First Edition


August 2018 | 488 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research is the first book of its kind to compile measures focused on communities and neighborhoods in one accessible resource. Organized into two main sections, the first provides the rationale, structure and purpose, and analysis of methodological issues, along with a conceptual and theoretical framework; the second section contains 10 chapters that synthesize, analyze, and describe measures for community and neighborhood research, with tables that summarize highlighted measures. The book will get readers thinking about which aspects of the neighborhood may be most important to measure in different research designs and also help researchers, practitioners, funders, and others more closely examine the impact of their work in communities and neighborhoods.


 
List of Measures and Tables
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
INTRODUCTORY CHAPTERS
 
Chapter 1: Introduction and Purpose
Defining Communities and Neighborhoods  
Overview of Measurement Methods and Inclusion Criteria for Measures in this Book  
Measurement Reliability  
Measurement Validity  
Purpose and Structure  
Description of Book Chapters  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 2: Framework for Community and Neighborhood Measurement
Our Conceptual Framework  
Conceptual Domains  
Examples of Community Measures in Research and Practice  
Example Application 1: Improving Access to Healthy Food  
Example Application 2: Promotion of Community Health  
Example Application 3: Promoting Community Safety and Preventing Violence  
Example Application 4: Prevention of Substance Use Disorders  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 3: Methodological Considerations for Community and Neighborhood Measurement
Methodological Issues When Using Community or Neighborhood-Level Measures  
Special Problems With Ecological and Geographic Units  
Ecological Fallacy  
The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP)  
Uncertain Geographic Context Problem (UGCoP)  
Violation of the Independence Assumption  
Sampling Considerations When Community Is the Unit of Analysis  
Addressing Sparseness Within Neighborhood Samples  
Sampling Neighborhoods or Place-Based Communities  
Sample Power in Multi-Level Studies  
Assessing the Reliability of Neighborhood-Level Measures: Ecometrics  
Overall Methodological Issues for Community and Neighborhood Measurement  
Specifying Neighborhood as a Social and Geographic Unit  
Administrative Boundaries  
Resident-Perceived Neighborhoods  
Physical and Spatial Characteristics  
Activity Spaces  
Considerations in Selecting the Unit of Analysis  
Objective Versus Subjective Neighborhood Measurement  
Engaging Community Partners in the Selection of Measures  
Using New Technology to Measure Neighborhoods  
Conclusion  
 
CHAPTERS ON MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS
 
Chapter 4: Community Readiness and Capacity for Change
Defining Community Readiness and Capacity  
Community Readiness Model  
Community Capacity for Change  
Measuring Community Readiness and Capacity  
Measures of Community Readiness  
Measures of Community Capacity  
Combined Measures of Community Readiness and Capacity  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 5: Strategic Collective Action in Communities
The Importance of Measuring Strategic Collective Action  
Methods for Measuring Strategic Collective Action  
Measures of Strategic Collective Action  
Participation, Representation, and Activities  
Power  
Collaboration  
Coalitions  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 6: Social Connections and Processes in Communities
Why is it important to measure social connections and processes in communities?  
Sense of Community (SOC) Measures  
Construct Validity of the SOC  
SOC as an Individual- and Community-Level Construct  
Measures of Neighborhood Social Processes  
Collective Efficacy  
Neighborhood Matters Measure  
Social Capital Measures  
Saguaro Seminar on Civic Engagement  
Social Capital Measure From the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods  
More Recent Social Capital Measures  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 7: Community Empowerment and Engagement
Why is it important to measure community empowerment and engagement?  
Empowerment in Communities  
Psychological Empowerment Measures  
Community Empowerment Measure  
Sociopolitical Control Measures  
Community and Citizen Participation  
Defining Community and Citizen Participation  
Measures of Community and Citizen Participation  
Civic Engagement  
Defining Civic Engagement  
Civic Engagement Measures  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 8: Community Resources and Resident Satisfaction
Defining Community Resources and Satisfaction  
Community Resources  
Community Satisfaction  
Satisfaction With Public Services  
The Relationship Between Community Satisfaction and Satisfaction With Public Services  
Why Measure Community Resources and Satisfaction?  
Methods Used to Measure Community Resources and Satisfaction  
Measures of Community Resources  
Observation-Based Measures of Resources  
Survey-Based Measures of Resources  
Combining Observations and Survey Methods to Measure Community Resources  
Measures of Community Satisfaction  
Measures of Satisfaction With Public Services  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 9: The Built Environment Influencing Healthy Living
Why is it important to measure the built environment?  
How is the built environment measured?  
Overview of Measures  
Neighborhood Food Environment  
Walkability of Neighborhoods  
Recreation in Neighborhoods  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 10: Housing and Neighborhood Change
Why are measures related to housing and neighborhood change important?  
Housing Measures  
Measures of Housing Quality  
Measures of Housing Affordability  
Measures of Housing Market Strength  
Neighborhood Change Measures  
Measures of Vacancy, Abandonment, and Blight  
Measures of Residential Mobility and Housing Unit Turnover  
Measures of Gentrification and Displacement  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 11: Community Disorder, Crime, and Violence
Why Is It Important to Measure Disorder, Crime and Violence?  
Community Disorder and Order Measures  
Defining Community Disorder and Order  
Measures of Community Disorder and Order  
Fear of Crime  
Defining Fear of Crime  
Measures of Fear of Crime  
Exposure to Community Violence  
Defining Exposure to Community Violence  
Measures of Exposure to Community Violence Among Children and Adolescents  
Measures of Exposure to Community Violence Among Adults  
Crime, Violence, and Related Data  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 12: Place-based Social Exclusion and Inequity
Measuring Community Social Disadvantage  
Quantifying Place-Based Segregation by Race, Ethnicity, and Income  
Minority–Majority Group Measures of Segregation  
Multiple Group Segregation Measures  
Economic Segregation Measures  
Spatial Segregation Measures  
Community Diversity Measures  
Measurement of Neighborhood Racial and Ethnic Diversity  
Measuring Income Diversity in Neighborhoods  
Measuring Access to Opportunity  
Measures of Job Access  
Measures of Access to Services and Amenities  
Conclusion  
 
Chapter 13: Community Well-Being and Quality of Life
Defining Well-Being/Quality of Life  
Individual Well-Being  
Social Well-Being  
Community or Neighborhood Well-Being  
Why Measure Neighborhood Well-Being/Quality of Life?  
As an Alternative to GDP  
As an Alternative to DAYL  
Well-Being Measures  
Facet-Based Measures of Individual Well-Being That Include Community/Neighborhood Components  
Global Measures of Community/Neighborhood Well-Being  
Facet-Based Indicators of Community/Neighborhood Well-Being  
Measures Used in Surveys  
Measures That Use Administrative Data  
Measures That Combine Survey Items and Administrative Data  
Conclusion  

Measure for Community and Neighborhood Research is a ‘one stop shop’ for community practitioners, researchers, students and advocates. Each chapter provides a wealth of knowledge and resources to identify keen methods for measuring outcomes and making and supporting sustainable change.”

John R. Barner
University of Georgia

Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research fills a gap in the literature; it puts core measures and methodological approaches in one place. It is a great resource for researchers engaged in interdisciplinary and multi-level analysis of communities.”

Robert Silverman
University at Buffalo

"Measure for Community and Neighborhood Research is the first book of its kind. Now community practitioners and scholars can find in one place the key measures used to define community characteristics and track change over time."

Richard J. Smith
Wayne State University
Key features
KEY FEATURES:
  • A wealth of content appeals to a broad audience—including instructors, students, researchers, funders, and practitioners—across a range of disciplines, including social work, sociology, policy studies, political science, community psychology, community development, urban affairs, criminology, urban economics, community education, public and community health, prevention science, and more.
  • A conceptual framework helps readers develop a common way of thinking about community and neighborhood research.
  • Overviews of methodological issues help readers better understand which factors are most important to consider when deciding on a measure.
  • Detailed descriptions of diverse methods provide both breadth and depth for community and neighborhood measurement and research.



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ISBN: 9781483358369
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