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Randomized Response and Related Methods

Randomized Response and Related Methods
Surveying Sensitive Data

Second Edition

August 2015 | 144 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Randomized response is a data collection strategy specifically designed for surveys of a sensitive nature. By establishing a probabilistic connection between question and answer, randomized response and related methods protect respondents who are asked to disclose personal information. Covering a half century of theoretical and applied research, the Second Edition significantly updates and expands what was, at the time, the first comprehensive and practical guide to randomized response. 

1. Surveying Sensitive Topics
Asking Sensitive Questions  
Types of Errors in Surveys  
Ethical Issues in Surveys  
Legal Means of Privacy Protections  
Privacy Protection Through Anonymity  
Confidentiality and Privacy Protection  
Need for an Alternative Strategy  
2. The Randomized Response Technique
Warner's Randomized Response Design  
Unrelated Question Approach  
Forced Alternative Response  
Repeat Randomization  
3. Design Considerations in Randomized Response
Alternative Question Content  
Randomizing Devise and Question Selection Probability  
Distribution of Alternative Questions  
Reconciling Respondent Hazards and Efficiency  
4. Alternatives to Randomized Response
Non-Randomized Response  
Use of Lists and Counts  
5. Extensions of Randomized Response
Generalization to Polychotomous Measures  
Untruthful Respondents as a Special Group  
Extension to Quantitative Measures  
6. Analyzing Randomized Response Data
Measures of Association  
Randomized Response as Disclosure Control  
An Alternative Formulation  
Randomized Response Software  
7. Applications of Randomized Response Methods
Substantive Applications  
Comparison Studies  
Validation Research  
8. Epilogue

Randomized Reponse and Related Methods is a comprehensive how-to guide for any researcher interested in designing, implementing, and analyzing data from an RRT.

Allyson Holbrook
University of Illinois at Chicago
Key features


  • Related strategies for surveying sensitive data are covered, including non-randomized response and the item count technique.
  • Discussions of SAS, Stata, and Mplus software for analyzing data gathered with randomized response methods are included.
  • The latest theory and methods are applied to telephone-based and Web surveys, as well as to face-to-face interviewing.
  • Graphical representations of several randomized response models clarify key information.
  • Substantive applications and validations are drawn from a range of disciplines, including political science, public health, and business ethics.
  • A revised introduction explores evasive response bias and conventional strategies for protecting respondents asked to reveal sensitive information.


Sample Materials & Chapters

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Chapter 2

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