Sage publishes a number of Open Access articles under our Gold Open Access journals and Sage Choice options. See below for information regarding the reuse of these articles. Please note that Sage may make additional non-Open Access content freely viewable on Sage Journals, and the reuse of such material may require permission.
Authors of papers published under a Creative Commons license (either in an Open Access journal or under the Sage Choice option) may reuse their work under the terms of the Creative Commons license attached to their article. In addition, authors of papers published with a non-commercial (NC) or no derivatives (ND) specification may also reuse their work as stated under the Green Open Access policy in the Guidelines for Sage Authors.
Several funding agencies have deposit requirements for papers, and Sage’s Green Open Access policy supports authors in meeting these requirements. For more information, visit Funding bodies, policies and compliance.
All licenses require that reuse complies with the following terms:
Volume (if applicable)
Issue (if applicable)
Page numbers (if applicable)
Date of publication
Sage as the original publisher
A link to the original article as published on Sage Journals (where practicable)
Creative Commons license terms for reuse do not apply to any content (such as graphs, figures, photos, excerpts, etc.) not original to the Open Access article and further permission may be required from the rights holder. The obligation to research and clear permission lies solely with the party reusing the material.
Reuse of a work must not imply or otherwise suggest sponsorship or endorsement by Sage, the author(s), journal, society or other third party.
Creative Commons licenses do not negate the moral rights of authors, including but not limited to the right to attribution and the right that a work not be subjected to derogatory treatment that threatens the honour or reputation of the author(s).
Sage strongly recommends users notify the original author(s) of their intention to distribute, adapt, translate or republish Open Access content.
Please visit the Creative Commons website (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/) for more detailed information on each license listed below.
For each of the Creative Commons licenses listed below, refer to the section above regarding requirements of attribution, third party material, false endorsement and moral rights.
|Content may be copied, adapted, displayed, distributed, republished or otherwise reused provided the purpose of these activities is not for commercial use. Commercial use means use of the content by a commercial organisation or individual for direct (including through sale, loan or license) or indirect (including through marketing campaigns, promotional materials or presentations) commercial gain or remuneration. For examples of common commercial reuses, see below.
|Content may be copied, adapted, displayed, distributed, republished or otherwise reused for any purpose including for adaptation and commercial use provided the content is attributed.
|A work may be copied, displayed, distributed, republished or otherwise reused provided the reuse is not an adaptation or derivative and the integrity of the original work is maintained. Additionally, this license does not allow for commercial use of the work. Commercial use means use of the content by a commercial organisation or individual for direct (including through sale, loan or license) or indirect (including through marketing campaigns, promotional materials or presentations) commercial gain or remuneration. To create an adaptation, translation, or derivative of the original work, further permission is required and can be obtained by contacting the Permissions department. For examples of common commercial reuses, see below.
|A work may be copied, displayed, distributed, republished or otherwise reused provided the reuse is not an adaptation or derivative and the integrity of the original work is maintained. To create an adaptation, translation, or derivative of the original work, further permission is required and can be obtained by contacting the Permissions department.
(Attribution) for Intergovernmental Organizations
Content may be copied, adapted, displayed, distributed, republished or otherwise reused for any purpose including for adaptation and commercial use provided the content is attributed. The IGO license conveys all of the reuse rights as the CC BY license and is used by intergovernmental organizations such as the United Nations, World Bank, and World Health Organization.
Note that IGO licenses are different from the corresponding CC licenses in that they contain two unique provisions. The first is that disputes will be resolved by mediation or, if mediation is unsuccessful, through arbitration. The second is that the license allows for a cure period so that if a licensee corrects a license violation within 30 days of its discovery, the license will automatically reinstate.
The following examples of commercial use require further permission under the CC-BY-NC and CC-BY-NC-ND licenses.
republication of content in a work or product available for sale (unless subject to other copyright exceptions such as fair use or fair dealing).
republication of content in presentations, brochures or other marketing materials by a commercial entity, or by any entity for commercial purposes.
distribution of the content to promote or market a person, product, course, service or organization.
text and data mining for the purpose of creating a saleable product or product which benefits from promotional or advertising revenue.
use of the content by a commercial entity or individual for the purposes of remuneration, directly or indirectly through sale, licensing, promotion or advertising.
To request permission or clarification on what is permitted, please contact us through the Sage Permissions Portal. For commercial reprints or e-prints, email email@example.com for Sage Publications, Inc. related inquiries, or firstname.lastname@example.org for Sage Publications Ltd. or any other Sage imprint related inquiries.
Articles which are free-to-view but do not have a Creative Commons license are not Open Access. Permission is generally required to reuse content from these articles. See our Process for Requesting Permission page for more information about how to seek permission to reuse these materials.