A Note to the Student: Why We Wrote This Book

Acknowledgements

And Now, About the Seventh Edition

About the Authors

Part I: Yippee! I'm in Statistics!

Chapter 1. Statistics or Sadistics? It’s Up to You

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

A 5-Minute History of Statistics

Statistics: What It Is (and Isn’t)

What Am I Doing in a Statistics Class?

Ten Ways to Use This Book (and Learn Statistics at the Same Time!)

About the Book’s Features

Part II: Zigma Freud and Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 2. Computing and Understanding Averages: Means to an End

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

When to Use What Measure of Central Tendency (and All You Need to Know About Scales of Measurement for Now)

Using SPSS to Compute Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 3. Understanding Variability: Vivé la Différence

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Why Understanding Variability Is Important

Computing the Standard Deviation

Using SPSS to Compute Measures of Variability

Chapter 4. Creating Graphs: A Picture Really Is Worth a Thousand Words

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Ten Ways to a Great Figure (Eat Less and Exercise More?)

First Things First: Creating a Frequency Distribution

The Plot Thickens: Creating a Histogram

The Next Step: A Frequency Polygon

Other Cool Ways to Chart Data

Using the Computer (SPSS, That Is) to Illustrate Data

Chapter 5. Computing Correlation Coefficients: Ice Cream and Crime

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

What Are Correlations All About?

Computing a Simple Correlation Coefficient

Understanding What the Correlation Coefficient Means

Squaring the Correlation Coefficient: A Determined Effort

Parting Ways: A Bit About Partial Correlation

Chapter 6. An Introduction to Understanding Reliability and Validity: Just the Truth

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

An Introduction to Reliability and Validity

Reliability: Doing It Again Until You Get It Right

Different Types of Reliability

How Big Is Big? Finally: Interpreting Reliability Coefficients

Validity: Whoa! What Is the Truth?

Validity and Reliability: Really Close Cousins

Part III: Taking Chances for Fun and Profit

Chapter 7. Hypotheticals and You: Testing Your Questions

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

So You Want to Be a Scientist?.?.?.

What Makes a Good Hypothesis?

Chapter 8. Probability and Why it Counts: Fun with a Bell-Shaped Curve

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

The Normal Curve (a.k.a. the Bell-Shaped Curve)

Our Favorite Standard Score: The z Score

Fat and Skinny Frequency Distributions

Part IV Significantly Different: Using Inferential Statistics

Chapter 9. Significantly Significant: What It Means for You and Me

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

The Concept of Significance

Significance Versus Meaningfulness

An Introduction to Inferential Statistics

An Introduction to Tests of Significance

Chapter 10. The One-Sample Z Test: Only the Lonely

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Introduction to the One-Sample Z Test

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Computing the Z Test Statistic

Using SPSS to Perform a Z Test

Special Effects: Are Those Differences for Real?

Chapter 11. t(ea) for Two: Tests Between the Means of Different Groups

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Introduction to the t Test for Independent Samples

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Computing the t Test Statistic

The Effect Size and t(ea) for Two

Using SPSS to Perform a t Test

Chapter 12. t(ea) for Two (Again): Tests Between the Means of Related Groups

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Introduction to the t Test for Dependent Samples

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Computing the t Test Statistic

Using SPSS to Perform a Dependent t Test

The Effect Size for t(ea) for Two (Again)

Chapter 13. Two Groups Too Many? Try Analysis of Variance

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Introduction to Analysis of Variance

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Different Flavors of Analysis of Variance

Computing the F Test Statistic

Using SPSS to Compute the F Ratio

The Effect Size for One-Way ANOVA

Chapter 14. Two Too Many Factors: Factorial Analysis of Variance—A Brief Introduction

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Introduction to Factorial Analysis of Variance

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

The Main Event: Main Effects in Factorial ANOVA

Even More Interesting: Interaction Effects

Using SPSS to Compute the F Ratio

Computing the Effect Size for Factorial ANOVA

Chapter 15. Testing Relationships Using the Correlation Coefficient: Cousins or Just Good Friends?

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Introduction to Testing the Correlation Coefficient

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Computing the Test Statistic

Using SPSS to Compute a Correlation Coefficient (Again)

Chapter 16. Using Linear Regression: Predicting the Future

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Introduction to Linear Regression

What Is Prediction All About?

Drawing the World’s Best Line (for Your Data)

How Good Is Your Prediction?

Using SPSS to Compute the Regression Line

The More Predictors the Better? Maybe

Part V: More Statistics! More Tools! More Fun!

Chapter 17. Chi-Square and Some Other Nonparametric Tests: What to Do When You’re Not Normal

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics

Introduction to the Goodness of Fit (One-Sample) Chi-Square

Computing the Goodness of Fit Chi-Square Test Statistic

Introduction to the Test of Independence Chi-Square

Computing the Test of Independence Chi-Square Test Statistic

Using SPSS to Perform Chi-Square Tests

Other Nonparametric Tests You Should Know About

Chapter 18. Some Other (Important) Statistical Procedures You Should Know About

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance

Structural Equation Modeling

Chapter 19. Data Mining: An Introduction to Getting the Most Out of Your BIG Data

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Our Sample Data Set—Who Doesn’t Love Babies?

Pivot Tables and Cross-Tabulation: Finding Hidden Patterns

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

Appendix I

Glossary