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Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy
An Integrative Approach

Third Edition
  • Elsie Jones-Smith - Diplomate in Counseling Psychology, American Board of Professional Psychology

February 2020 | 712 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
A step forward from the traditional textbook on counseling theories, Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach offers students a comprehensive overview of past and current approaches to psychotherapy and counseling, with a modern approach to theories of psychotherapy. An extensive array of mainstream theories, as well as contemporary approaches such as narrative, feminist, LGBT, and post-modern, are covered. Author Elsie Jones-Smith helps readers to construct their integrated approach to psychotherapy by learning how to develop a broad range of therapeutic expertise to meet the needs of a culturally diverse clientele. In addition to listing and describing theories, this text compares and contrasts them to show their strengths and weaknesses. The Third Edition includes a new chapter on trauma-informed counseling/psychotherapy and provides updated references, sections, and studies reflecting the latest developments within the helping professions.

Included with this title:

The password-protected Instructor Resource Site (formally known as SAGE Edge)
offers access to all text-specific resources, including a test bank and editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides. Learn more.

About the Author
Chapter 1. Introduction: Journey Toward Theory Integration
Brief Overview

The Role of Theories of Psychotherapy

Integrative Psychotherapy: The Focus of This Book

Professional and Personal Issues for the Journey Toward Psychotherapy or Counseling Integration

Therapist Beliefs and Values: Relationship to Choosing a Theory

Ethical Issues in Starting Your Journey Toward Developing an Integrative Counseling Theory


Psychology’s Indebtedness to Sigmund Freud

Some Distinctions Between Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Theories

Integration of Freudian Concepts: The Unconscious and Transference

New Forms of Psychoanalysis

Chapter 2. Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Theories
Brief Overview

Psychoanalytic Therapy

Key Concepts of Sigmund Freud

The Therapeutic Process

The Movement Toward Contemporary Psychodynamic Therapy

Ego Psychology

Object Relations Theory

Self Psychology

Comparison and Contrast of Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Theories

Other Theorists and Therapy Approaches Considered Psychoanalytic

Brief Psychodynamic Therapy

Key Concepts of Carl Jung

Research and Evaluation of Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Approaches


Chapter 3. Adlerian Psychotherapy
Brief Overview

Major Contributor: Alfred Adler (1870–1937)

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


Definition of Behavior Therapy

The Three Waves of Behavior Therapy

Chapter 4. Behavior Therapy and Integrated Psychopharmacology
Brief Overview

Behavior Therapy

Key Concepts of Behavior Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Current Trends in Behavior Therapy

Applied Behavioral Analysis

Behavioral Activation: A Promising Treatment for Depression

The Behavior Activation Model and Treatment for Depression

Behavior Activation Techniques

Integrated Psychopharmacology

Research and Evaluation


Chapter 5. Cognitive Approaches to Psychotherapy
Brief Overview

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Key Concepts of REBT

The Therapeutic Process and REBT

Social Modeling, Observational Learning, and Self-Efficacy

Cognitive Therapy and Depression

Key Concepts of Beck’s Cognitive Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Cognitive Neuroscience

The Third Wave in Behavior Therapy: Mindfulness Integrated Into Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (DBT, ACT, and MBCT)

Differences Between ACT, CBT, DBT, and MBCT

Research and Evaluation of CBTs


Chapter 6. Reality/Choice Therapy
Brief Overview

Major Contributor: William Glasser (1925–2013)

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


The Existential and Humanistic Theories

The Existential Worldview

The Humanistic Worldview

Merger of Existentialism and Humanism

New Developments in Humanism: Motivational Interviewing, the Stages of Change Theory, Interpersonal Psychotherapy, and Emotion-Focused Therapy

Challenges Facing the Existential–Humanistic School

Chapter 7. Existential Therapy
Brief Overview

Major Contributor: Rollo May (1904–1994): The First Major American Existentialist

Key Concepts of Existential Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Major Contributor: Viktor Frankl (1905–1997) and Logotherapy

Research and Evaluation


Chapter 8. Person-Centered Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy
Brief Overview

Major Contributor: Carl Rogers (1902–1987)

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


Chapter 9. Gestalt Therapy and Emotion- Focused Therapy: Two Experiential Therapies
Brief Overview

Major Contributor: Fritz Perls (1893–1970)

Philosophical Roots for Gestalt Therapy

Influence of Existentialism on Gestalt Therapy

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation

Emotion-Focused Therapy

Goals of EFT


Chapter 10. Motivational Interviewing and the Stages of Change Theory
Brief Overview

Motivational Interviewing

Key Concepts of MI

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation of MI

The Transtheoretical Model of Change or the Stages of Change Theory

Key Concepts of the Transtheoretical Model of Change

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation of TTM


Chapter 11. The Expressive Arts and Counseling
Brief Overview

Expressive Arts: A Human Tradition

Key Concepts

Three Expressive Arts Therapeutic Approaches

Art Therapy and Neuroscience

Research and Evaluation


Postmodernism and the Road to Social Constructivism

Differences Between Modern and Postmodern or Constructivist Psychotherapies

The Postmodern Psychotherapies

Outline of Chapters in Part IV

Chapter 12. Multicultural Counseling: Theories and Practice
Brief Overview

Brief History and Overview of the Multicultural Movement

New 2017 APA Multicultural Guidelines

What Is Multicultural Counseling?

Multicultural Counseling: Two Emerging Theories

The Therapeutic Process

Beginning the Cultural Competence Journey

The Culturally Competent Skill of Counselor Cultural Humility

Major Barriers to Culturally Competent Counseling or Therapy

Racial or Ethnic, Gender, and Sexual Orientation Bias: Major Barriers to Cultural Competence

Research and Evaluation


Chapter 13. Transcultural and International Approaches to Counseling and Psychotherapy: Bridges to Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East
Brief Overview

Commonalities Among Asian Theories of Personality and Psychotherapy

Japanese Approaches to Psychotherapy

Chinese Contributions to Psychotherapy: Mindfulness

Hindu Indian Approaches to Counseling and Psychotherapy

African Approaches to Healing and Psychotherapy: Nigeria

Arab Approaches to Psychotherapy

Research and Evaluation of Transcultural Psychotherapy


Chapter 14. Feminist Therapy and LGBTQ Therapy
Feminist Therapy

Key Concepts of Feminist Therapy

The Therapeutic Process in Feminist Therapy

Research and Evaluation in Feminist Therapy

Gay and Lesbian Therapy

Key Concepts of LGBTQ Therapy

The Therapeutic Process in Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy


Chapter 15. Integrating Spiritual and Religious Issues During Psychotherapy
Brief Overview

Key Concepts in Spiritual and Religious Counseling

Research and Evaluation


Chapter 16. Solution-Focused Therapy
Brief Overview

Major Contributors: Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


Chapter 17. Narrative Therapy
Brief Overview

Key Concepts

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation


Chapter 18. Strengths-Based Therapy

Major Contributor: Elsie Jones-Smith

Key Concepts

The Neurobiology of Human Strengths Development

Strengths-Based Therapy and Mindsets

The Revised Strengths-Based Counseling Model

Strengths-Based Therapy: Overview of Phases

Strengths-Based Therapy Techniques


Chapter 19. Family Therapy Approaches

Multigenerational Family Therapy

Key Concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Case Illustration From a Bowenian Family Therapy Approach

Experiential Family Therapy

Key Concepts of Experiential Family Therapy

Case Illustration of the Experiential Approach to Family Therapy

Structural Family Therapy

Key Concepts of Structural Family Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Case Illustration of Structural Family Therapy

Strategic Family Therapy

Key Concepts of Strategic Family Therapy

The Therapeutic Process

Research and Evaluation



The Promise of Neuroscience

Criteria for Neuroscience to Be the Fifth Force in Psychotherapy

Chapter 20. Neuroscience, Interpersonal Neurobiology, and Trauma-Informed Counseling

Major Contributors

Toward a Theoretical Framework for Neuropsychotherapy

Key Concepts of Neuroscience

The Therapeutic Process

Recent Brain-Based Therapies: Interpersonal Neurobiology, Neurocounseling, Trauma-Informed Counseling, and Coherence Therapy

Neuroscience and the DSM–5

Research and Evaluation


Chapter 21. Integrative Psychotherapy: Constructing Your Own Integrative Approach to Therapy

Pathways to Psychotherapy Integration

Toward Developing Your Own Approach to Integrative Psychotherapy

Points of Psychotherapy Integration: Therapist Worldviews, Goals, Role of Therapist and Client, and Counseling Techniques

Worldviews of Theories of Psychotherapy

Key Concepts of Theories of Psychotherapy

The Therapeutic Process

Top Five Ways to Determine Your Theoretical Orientation to Psychotherapy




Instructor Resource Site

Online resources included with this text

The online resources for your text are available via the password-protected Instructor Resource Site, which offers access to all text-specific resources, including a test bank and editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides.
Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime. It offers flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, as well as learning objectives that reinforce the most important material.

For additional information, custom options, or to request a personalized walkthrough of these resources, please contact your sales representative.

Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy is more comprehensive than any other text I have seen. The inner reflections, supplementary aids, and case analysis provide ample opportunities for students to apply, synthesize, and analyze theoretical concepts.”

Lynn Boyd
Troy University

“There is inclusion of multiple techniques for each type of theory.”

Lesley L. Casarez
Angelo State University

“The chapters do a nice job of explaining key concepts.”

Danica Harris
Texas Woman’s University

Excellent content for students

Ms Jayne Hartwig
Centre for Education and Training, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide
July 11, 2023

This is a good synopsis of all the major theories although it does concentrate on integrated theory. This may be of interest for students who are looking to go into clinical practice.

Dr Donna Maria Poade
School of Entrepreneurship, Falmouth University
May 25, 2023

I did adopt this book for one semester and will not adopt in the future. The instructor materials have "All lives matter" identified. The students had concerns about sexist and racist content that negatively impacted the classroom experience.

Dr Brittany Sager-Heinrichs
Counseling and Family Therapy, La Salle University
December 19, 2022

This text provides all the theoretical orientations that are needed to be covered during this course. Supplemental materials are great for assisting students.

Professor Darrell L McSwain
Psychology Dept, American International College
August 11, 2021

Includes multicultural perspectives throughout.

Dr Deborah Wiese
Psychology Dept, Miami University-Oxford
May 20, 2020

Good information, easy for students to use

Miss Stephanie M Dixon
Continuing Education, Fayetteville Tech Cmty College
October 7, 2020
Key features
  • A new chapter on trauma-informed counseling/psychotherapy explores this area of counseling that has gained momentum and prominence since the 1980s.
  • Theories of psychotherapy are grouped under the headings of five major forces in psychology and psychotherapy:
    • 1. psychoanalytic and psychodynamic theories
    • 2. behavior and cognitive therapy theories
    • 3. existential-humanistic theories
    • 4. social constructivist, postmodern, and integrative approaches to therapy
    • 5. neuroscience and psychopharmacology
  • A new section on the “third-wave cognitive-behavioral therapies”—cognitive-behavioral theoretical approaches that have incorporated Eastern perspectives and mindfulness—is added.
  • Three new cognitive-behavioral approaches to psychotherapy are presented, including dialectical behavior therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.
  • Recent psychotherapy theories are introduced, including interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), emotion-focused therapy, interpersonal neurobiology, trauma-focused counseling, and neuroscience counseling.
  • Author Elsie Jones-Smith modifies Brooks-Harris’s model by adding five other dimensions, including spiritual, relational, strengths (internal and external), evidence-based research, and the change process.
  • Updated developments related to neuroscience include such areas as interpersonal psychotherapy, emotion-focused therapy, interpersonal neurobiology, neurocounseling, and trauma-informed counseling.
  • Part IV (The Fourth Force in Psychotherapy: Social Constructivism and Postmodernism) is highly responsive to CACREP standards and the need to include cultural diversity across the broad spectrum of counseling and psychology courses.
  • This new edition continues its strong emphasis on cultural diversity and includes a new section on cultural positives and cultural blind spots for each major psychotherapy presented.


  • In addition to traditional and social constructivist theories, this text takes a bold step and includes more contemporary approaches to psychotherapy, with individual chapters on spirituality and psychotherapy, strengths-based therapy, neuroscience and neuropsychotherapy, motivational interviewing, and the expressive arts therapies.
  • A strong focus of diversity is apparent throughout, exploring critical issues such as gay and lesbian identity development, counseling from a feminist perspective, Arab Muslim views on psychotherapy, Japanese and Chinese approaches to psychotherapy, and more.
  • A separate chapter on spirituality and psychotherapy provides a section on clinical assessment and questions to bring forth clients’ spiritual life—a major milestone in a counseling theory book.
  • Tables and charts throughout the book compare and contrast theories and clarify key concepts.
  • Brief biographies of each theorist’s life explore the impact of their life on the development of their approach to psychotherapy. The biographical descriptions provide engaging classroom discussions and reveal the personal side of theorists.
  • Extensive question and answer sections at the end of each chapter promote active involvement and reflection.
  • A collection of original videos demonstrating key concepts covered in the text is available to purchase with the text. 

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ISBN: 9781544384580

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