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Randomized Response and Related Methods

Randomized Response and Related Methods
Surveying Sensitive Data

Second Edition

August 2015 | 144 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Randomized response is a data collection strategy specifically designed for surveys of a sensitive nature. By establishing a probabilistic connection between question and answer, randomized response and related methods protect respondents who are asked to disclose personal information. Covering a half century of theoretical and applied research, the Second Edition significantly updates and expands what was, at the time, the first comprehensive and practical guide to randomized response. 

1. Surveying Sensitive Topics
Asking Sensitive Questions

Types of Errors in Surveys

Ethical Issues in Surveys

Legal Means of Privacy Protections

Privacy Protection Through Anonymity

Confidentiality and Privacy Protection

Need for an Alternative Strategy

2. The Randomized Response Technique
Warner's Randomized Response Design

Unrelated Question Approach

Forced Alternative Response

Repeat Randomization

3. Design Considerations in Randomized Response
Alternative Question Content

Randomizing Devise and Question Selection Probability

Distribution of Alternative Questions

Reconciling Respondent Hazards and Efficiency

4. Alternatives to Randomized Response
Non-Randomized Response

Use of Lists and Counts

5. Extensions of Randomized Response
Generalization to Polychotomous Measures

Untruthful Respondents as a Special Group

Extension to Quantitative Measures

6. Analyzing Randomized Response Data
Measures of Association

Randomized Response as Disclosure Control

An Alternative Formulation

Randomized Response Software

7. Applications of Randomized Response Methods
Substantive Applications

Comparison Studies

Validation Research

8. Epilogue

Randomized Reponse and Related Methods is a comprehensive how-to guide for any researcher interested in designing, implementing, and analyzing data from an RRT.

Allyson Holbrook
University of Illinois at Chicago
Key features


  • Related strategies for surveying sensitive data are covered, including non-randomized response and the item count technique.
  • Discussions of SAS, Stata, and Mplus software for analyzing data gathered with randomized response methods are included.
  • The latest theory and methods are applied to telephone-based and Web surveys, as well as to face-to-face interviewing.
  • Graphical representations of several randomized response models clarify key information.
  • Substantive applications and validations are drawn from a range of disciplines, including political science, public health, and business ethics.
  • A revised introduction explores evasive response bias and conventional strategies for protecting respondents asked to reveal sensitive information.


Sample Materials & Chapters

Title Page

Chapter 2

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