# Introductory Statistics Using SPSS

- Herschel Knapp - University of Southern California, USA

**Second Edition**of Herschel Knapp’s friendly and practical introduction to statistics shows students how to properly select, process, and interpret statistics without heavy emphasis on theory, formula derivations, or abstract mathematical concepts. Each chapter is structured to answer questions that students most want answered:

*What statistical test should I use for this situation? How do I set up the data? How do I run the test? How do I interpret and document the results?*Online tutorial videos, examples, screenshots, and intuitive illustrations help students "get the story" from their data as they learn by doing, completing practice exercises at the end of each chapter using prepared downloadable data sets.

**Available with Perusall—an eBook that makes it easier to prepare for class**

*Perusall*is an award-winning eBook platform featuring social annotation tools that allow students and instructors to collaboratively mark up and discuss their SAGE textbook. Backed by research and supported by technological innovations developed at Harvard University, this process of learning through collaborative annotation keeps your students engaged and makes teaching easier and more effective. Learn more.

Learning Objectives |

Overview—Research Principles |

Rationale for Statistics |

Research Questions |

Treatment and Control Groups |

Rationale for Random Assignment |

Hypothesis Formulation |

Reading Statistical Outcomes |

Accept or Reject Hypotheses |

Variable Types and Levels of Measure |

Continuous |

Interval |

Ratio |

Categorical |

Nominal |

Ordinal |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

Learning Objectives |

Overview—Sampling |

Rationale for Sampling |

Time |

Cost |

Feasibility |

Extrapolation |

Sampling Terminology |

Population |

Sample Frame |

Sample |

Representative Sample |

Probability Sampling |

Simple Random Sampling |

Stratified Sampling |

Proportionate and Disproportionate Sampling |

Systematic Sampling |

Area Sampling |

Nonprobability Sampling |

Convenience Sampling |

Purposive Sampling |

Quota Sampling |

Snowball Sampling |

Sampling Bias |

Optimal Sample Size |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

Learning Objectives |

Video |

Overview—SPSS |

Two Views: Variable View and Data View |

Variable View |

Name |

Type |

Width |

Decimals |

Label |

Values |

Missing |

Columns |

Align |

Measure |

Role |

Data View |

Value Labels Icon |

Codebook |

Saving Data Files |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

Learning Objectives |

Videos |

Overview—Descriptive Statistics |

Descriptive Statistics |

Number (n) |

Mean (µ) |

Median |

Mode |

Standard Deviation (SD) |

Variance |

Minimum |

Maximum |

Range |

SPSS—Loading an SPSS Data File |

Run SPSS |

Data Set |

Test Run |

SPSS—Descriptive Statistics: Continuous Variables (age) |

Statistics Tables |

Histogram With Normal Curve |

Skewed Distribution |

SPSS—Descriptive Statistics: Categorical Variables (gender) |

Statistics Tables |

Bar Chart |

SPSS—Descriptive Statistics: Continuous Variable (age) Select by Categorical Variable (gender)—Female or Male Only |

SPSS—(Re)Selecting All Variables |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

Learning Objectives |

Videos |

Overview—t Test |

Example |

Research Question |

Groups |

Procedure |

Hypotheses |

Data Set |

Pretest Checklist |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance |

Test Run |

Results |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance |

p Value |

Hypothesis Resolution |

a Level |

Documenting Results |

Type I and Type II Errors |

Type I Error |

Type II Error |

Overview—Mann-Whitney U Test |

Test Run |

Results |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

Learning Objectives |

Videos |

Layered Learning |

Overview—ANOVA |

Example |

Research Question |

Groups |

Procedure |

Hypotheses |

Data Set |

Pretest Checklist |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance |

Test Run |

Results |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—n Quota |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homogeneity of Variance |

Comparison 1—Text : Text With Illustrations |

Comparison 2—Text : Video |

Comparison 3—Text With Illustrations : Video |

Hypothesis Resolution |

Documenting Results |

Overview—Kruskal-Wallis Test |

Test Run |

Results |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

Learning Objectives |

Videos |

Overview—Paired t Test |

Pretest/Posttest Design |

Step 1: Pretest |

Step 2: Treatment |

Step 3: Posttest |

Example |

Research Question |

Groups |

Procedure |

Step 1: Pretest |

Step 2: Treatment |

Step 3: Posttest |

Hypotheses |

Data Set |

Pretest Checklist |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality of Difference |

Test Run |

Results |

Hypothesis Resolution |

Documenting Results |

?% Formula |

Overview—Wilcoxon Test |

Test Run |

Results |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

Learning Objectives |

Videos |

Overview—Pearson Correlation |

Example 1—Pearson Regression |

Research Question |

Groups |

Procedure |

Hypotheses |

Data Set |

Pretest Checklist |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—Normality |

Test Run |

Correlation |

Regression (Scatterplot With Regression Line) |

Results |

Scatterplot Points |

Scatterplot Regression Line |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 2—Linearity |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 3—Homoscedasticity |

Correlation |

Hypothesis Resolution |

Documenting Results |

Negative Correlation |

No Correlation |

Overview—Spearman Correlation |

Example 2—Spearman Correlation |

Research Question |

Groups |

Procedure |

Hypotheses |

Data Set |

Pretest Checklist |

Test Run |

Results |

Hypothesis Resolution |

Documenting Results |

Alternative Use for Spearman Correlation |

Correlation Versus Causation |

Overview—Other Types of Statistical Regression: Multiple Regression and Logistic Regression |

Multiple Regression (R2) |

Logistic Regression |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

Learning Objectives |

Video |

Overview—Chi-Square |

Example |

Research Question |

Groups |

Procedure |

Hypotheses |

Data Set |

Pretest Checklist |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—n = 5 per Cell |

Test Run |

Results |

Pretest Checklist Criterion 1—n = 5 per Cell |

Hypothesis Resolution |

Documenting Results |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

Learning Objectives |

Data Sets |

Overview—Supplemental SPSS Operations |

Generating Random Numbers |

Sort Cases |

Data Set |

Select Cases |

Data Set |

Recoding |

Data Set |

Importing Data |

Importing Excel Data |

Data Set |

Importing ASCII Data (Generic Text File) |

Data Set |

SPSS Syntax |

Data Set |

Data Sets |

Good Common Sense |

Key Concepts |

Practice Exercises |

### Supplements

The** Student Study Site** includes:

**Data sets**for use with exercises**Tutorial videos**demonstrating how to use SPSS to work with data**Solutions**to the odd-numbered exercises in the book

Password-protected** Instructor Resources **include the following:

- Editable, chapter-specific
**Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides**that offer complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course **Tutorial videos**demonstrating how to use SPSS to work with data**Solutions**to the all of the exercises in the book

"This student-friendly text, coupled with an ample number of practice exercises and instructional videos for each chapter, provided my students with the resources to become proficient in using SPSS to perform and interpret the statistical analyses covered in the course. In addition, this text emphasizes and models the written communication of results and conclusions derived from research."

**Centenary University**

“I find the videos extremely helpful. Of particular note was the pre-test checklist. This list helps students to understand what criteria need to be met for the test to be used. The directions provided are incredibly detailed and provide ample guidance to students with limited computer skills….Overall, I found this book to be the best of those that I have used or reviewed.”

**Montclair State University**

“This is one of the best introductory SPSS texts on the market. It is easy to read, clear, concise and does not overwhelm the reader with abstract statistical theory. The exercises and examples are good and will be really useful both in class and for homework assignments. The online resources are a great addition and really help in understanding the material in the text.”

**College of Staten Island, City University of New York**

I highly recommend this book for everyone who wish to use SPSS. It is well written, easy to understand and to follow. The learning objectives at the beginning of the chapters give a good starting point.

**Childhood and Youth study, Univeristy of Chichester**

Finally a clear and concise book that presents with parametric and non-parametric equivalents together. I'm a fan!

**Department of Psychology, Surrey University**