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Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology

Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology

Published in Association with Diabetes Technology Society

eISSN: 19322968 | ISSN: 19322968 | Current volume: 18 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Bi-monthly
The Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology (JDST) is a bi-monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Diabetes Technology Society. JDST covers scientific and clinical aspects of diabetes technology including glucose monitoring, insulin and metabolic peptide delivery, the artificial pancreas, digital health, precision medicine, social media, cybersecurity, software for modeling, physiologic monitoring, technology for managing obesity, and diagnostic tests of glycation. The journal also covers the development and use of mobile applications and wireless communication, as well as bioengineered tools such as MEMS, new biomaterials, and nanotechnology to develop new sensors. Articles in JDST cover both basic research and clinical applications of technologies being developed to help people with diabetes.

Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology (JDST) is a bi-monthly, peer-reviewed scientific e-journal published by the Diabetes Technology Society, a non-profit organization. It is ranked in the top quartile in the JCI Endocrinology and Metabolism category. Our purpose is to promote the development and use of new technology for people with diabetes.

JDST covers all aspects of diabetes technology including: glucose monitoring; insulin and metabolic peptide delivery; the artificial and bioartificial pancreas; telemedicine; digital health; artificial intelligence; new metrics for describing glycemia; cybersecurity; software for modeling; physiologic monitoring; technology for managing obesity; diagnostic tests of glycation; and the use of bioengineered tools such as MEMS, new biomaterials, and nanotechnology to develop new sensors and actuators to be applied to diabetes. Articles in JDST cover both basic human research and clinical applications of technologies being developed to help people with diabetes.

JDST’s Editors, Editorial Board, Advisory Board, and staff aim to provide members of the diabetes technology community with information about the latest scientific and medical advances, as well as news of professional meetings and business developments in the field of diabetes technology. The importance of diabetes technology is increasing for the 350 million people with diabetes worldwide. JDST is a virtual meeting place for members of the diabetes technology community who: believe that technology can deliver great benefits to people with diabetes; want to read about what their peers are doing; and want to communicate with each other via Letters to the Editor, a type of format which will facilitate quick responses to posted letters.

JDST publishes Original Articles, Review Articles, Commentary Articles, Analysis Articles, Letters to the Editor, Proceedings of Diabetes Meetings, and a special section in each issue focused on a specific diabetes technology, edited by several experts in this specific area. The journal website provides the latest news stories and timely references from the medical literature.

JDST is the only journal that publishes the proceedings of the Diabetes Technology Meeting.

Because Diabetes Technology Society is a non-profit organization, after one year all of our articles become free for anyone to download, which increases their visibility and number of citations compared to articles published in journals with a permanent paywall.

We at JDST hope you will find this journal informative, provocative, and even entertaining.

David C. Klonoff, M.D., FACP, FRCP (Edin), Fellow AIMBE Diabetes Research Institute, Mills-Peninsula Medical Center, San Mateo, California, USA
Managing Editor
Lutz Heinemann, Ph.D. Science & Co., Dusseldorf, Germany
Associate Editors
Claudio Cobelli, Ph.D. University of Padova, Padova, Italy
David Kerr, MBChB, DM, FRCPE, FRCP Sutter Health, Santa Barbara, California, USA
Boris Kovatchev, Ph.D. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Bijan Najafi, Ph.D. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
Production Editor
Jingtong Huang Diabetes Technology Society, Burlingame, California, USA
Annamarie Sucher-Jones Diabetes Technology Society, Burlingame, California, USA
Associate Production Editor
Rachel E. Aaron Diabetes Technology Society, Burlingame, California, USA
Editorial Board
Mark A. Arnold, Ph.D. University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
Eirik Arsand, Ph.D. Norwegian Centre for Integrated Care and Telemedicine, Tromsoe, Norway
Katharine Barnard-Kelly, Ph.D. BHR Ltd, Portsmouth, Hampshire, UK
B. Wayne Bequette, Ph.D. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA
Marc D. Breton, Ph.D. Center for Diabetes Technology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
Robert D. Burk, M.D. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
Jessica R. Castle, M.D. Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
Geoffrey Chase, Ph.D. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
Kong Chen, Ph.D. NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Simon L. Cichosz, Ph.D. Aalborg University, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg, North Jutland, Denmark
Chiara Dalla Man, Ph.D. University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Erik Dutson, M.D. University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
Niels Ejskjaer, M.D., Ph.D. Aalborg University Hospital, North Jutland, Denmark
Andrea Facchinetti, Ph.D. University of Padova, Padova, Italy
G. Alexander Fleming, M.D. Kinexum, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, USA
Guido Freckmann, M.D. Institut für Diabetes-Technologie Forschungs- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH an der Universität Ulm, Ulm, Germany
Brian Frier, BSc(Hons), M.D., FRCP(Edin), FRCP(Glas) The Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
Robert Gabbay, M.D., Ph.D. American Diabetes Association, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Alberto Gutierrez, Ph.D. NDA Partners LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Barbora V. Hagerf, M.D. Diabetes Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic
Peter Jacobs, Ph.D. Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
Jeffrey I. Joseph, D.O. Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Robert Langer, Sc.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Courtney H. Lias, Ph.D. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
Dorian Liepmann, Ph.D. University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA
Randie R. Little, Ph.D. University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA
Boris Mankovsky, M.D. National Medical Academy for Postgraduate Education, Kiev, Ukraine, USA
Chhavi Mehta, M.D. Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Burlingame, California, USA
Sultan Ayoub Meo, MBBS, M Med Ed, Ph.D., FRCP College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
V. Mohan, M.D., FRCP, Ph.D., D.Sc., FNASc Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
David O’Neal, M.D., FRACP, FRCP (Edin) University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Andreas Pfützner, M.D., Ph.D. Pfützner Science & Health Institute, Mainz, Germany
Sohi Rastegar, Ph.D. National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia, USA
Simon M. Schwaighoferr, M.D. Diabetes Center Berne, Global Center for Diabetes Technology Innovation, Bern, Switzerland
Jane Jeffrie Seley, DNP, M.P.H., M.S.N., BC-ADM, CDE New York Presbyterian/Weill Cornell, New York, New York, USA
Viral N. Shah, M.D. University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA
James Shapiro, M.D., Ph.D., FRCS(Eng), FRCSC, MSM, FCAHS University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Jordan M. Silberman, M.D., Ph.D. Elevance Health, Palo Alto, California, USA
Koji Sode, Ph.D. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
Jeffrey Sutton, M.D., Ph.D. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
Jithin Sam Varghese, Ph.D. Emory Global Diabetes Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Robert Vigersky, MD Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge, CA, USA
Elissa R. Weitzman, Sc.D., Msc Harvard Medical School, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Yaguang Zheng, RN, Ph.D. New York University Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York, New York, USA
  • Clarivate Analytics: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)
  • ProQuest
  • PubMed
  • PubMed: MEDLINE
  • Guidelines for Submitting a Manuscript

    For questions regarding submissions to DST please contact:

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    All authors need to add their ORCID iDs in Manuscript Central prior to acceptance in order for the IDs to be published on the final article, if accepted. If your manuscript is accepted for publication, you will not be able to add an ORCID iD after the manuscript is sent to our production team.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of JDST

    will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting  the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please     see our guidelines on prior publication and note that JDST may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy. If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    Topics of Interest

    Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology (JDST) welcomes the submission of manuscripts with accompanying figures and tables whose topics relate to the study and treatment of diabetes:

    • Glucose monitoring
    • Insulin and metabolic peptide delivery
    • Artificial and bioartificial pancreas
    • Information technology
    • Telemedicine
    • Software for modeling
    • Physiologic monitoring
    • Technology for managing obesity
    • Diagnostic tests of glycation
    • Personalized medicine for diabetes, including pharmacogenomics and biomarkers
    • Technology for improving adherence to therapy
    • Use of bioengineered tools such as:
      • MEMS
      • New biomaterials
      • Nanotechnology in the development of sensors and actuators


    Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology features articles that cover basic research and clinical applications of technology that are being developed to help people with diabetes.


    Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to JDST, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.


    Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.


    Make your article discoverable

    For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.


    Types of Articles

    Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology publishes the following types of articles:

    1. Original articles—results of research in the development of technology, clinical applications of technology, and the clinical performance of technology.
    2. Review articles—expert evaluation of technology and treatments for diabetes.
    3. Analysis articles—solicited pieces that discuss the merits of a specific article or the performance of a commercial product that has been presented in an Original Article.
    4. Commentary articles—an author’s perspective on the best methods for developing, using, and modifying technology; technology requirements; or the direction in which a branch of research is headed.
    5. Technology reports—brief articles that provide technical information on a product, device, assay, or method, but not necessarily its clinical application.
    6. Letters to the editor—opinion pieces, responses to articles featured in JDST, and brief reports about clinical observations. (For additional information, see Letters to the Editor section.)

    Prior to publication on-line, all manuscripts are copy edited and formatted in accordance with JDST style specifications. Authors are given the opportunity to review the proofs before publication.


    Peer Review Process

    The peer review process is an essential part of the article selection process. All manuscripts submitted are reviewed by the editor-in-chief (EIC). Each manuscript is sent for peer review to allow for an unbiased, independent, and critical assessment by individuals who are considered experts on the topic of the manuscript. EIC-reviewed peer review comments are forwarded to the authors who are given the opportunity to submit their response to the reviewers’ comments together with the final draft of the manuscript. The EIC  reviews all final drafts submitted and makes the final decision to decline or accept the manuscript for publication. The peer review process is an essential part of the article selection process. All manuscripts submitted are reviewed by the editor-in-chief (EIC). Each manuscript is sent for peer review to allow for an unbiased, independent, and critical assessment by individuals who are considered experts on the topic of the manuscript. The journal operates a conventional single-anonymized reviewing policy in which the reviewer's name is always concealed from the submitting author unless the review requests a preference for their identity to be revealed. EIC-reviewed peer review comments are forwarded to the authors who are given the opportunity to submit their response to the reviewers’ comments together with the final draft of the manuscript. The EIC  reviews all final drafts submitted and makes the final decision to decline or accept the manuscript for publication.

    This process benefits both the author and JDST by improving the quality  of the article.

    JDST is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for JDST can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.


    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.


    Author Responsibilities and Accountability

    Authors who submit a manuscript to JDST confirm that the manuscript has never been published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere (except as an abstract or preliminary report).

    Authors are fully accountable for the accuracy of all references used and all text quoted. For more information, see the References section.



    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.


    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:


    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work;           or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2.  Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3.  Approved the version to be published,
    4.  Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take  public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.


    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.


    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee         of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    Ethical Compliance

    Authors who submit manuscripts to JDST certify and confirm the following:

    1. All research efforts conducted on humans were in compliance with the  World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki.
    2. Studies that involved animals followed the guidelines for the use and care of laboratory animals outlined by their institution, National Research Council, and national laws of their country. Please include a statement to this effect in the Methods section of the abstract and provide all pertinent information such as the name(s) of the institution  that gave approval and the reference number(s).
    3. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects and documented according to the specifications of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and/or U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    NOTE: Manuscripts may be rejected by JDST if there are concerns that  the research was not carried out within an ethical framework.





    Authors are responsible for obtaining all necessary permissions from the copyright owner for all material reproduced from published sources and submitting a copy of the permission(s) to JDST prior to publication.

    Include full credit in the manuscript’s text, figure legends, and/or in the acknowledgement section, as appropriate.



    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.


    Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of  input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.



    JDST requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


    Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of JDST to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.


    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here


    Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki


    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.


    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.


    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized

    representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a

    patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.


    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants


    Clinical trials

    JDST conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.


    Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta- analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.


    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives


    Research Data

    At Sage we are committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research. Where relevant, JDST encourages authors to share their research data in a suitable public repository subject to ethical considerations and where data is included, to add a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file. Authors should also follow data citation principles. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway, which includes information about Sage’s partnership with the data repository Figshare.


    Copyright Ownership Transfer

    Authors transfer copyright ownership to Diabetes Technology Society by completing and signing the copyright transfer form when their manuscript is accepted for publication.


    When an author certifies on the copyright transfer form that his/her contribution to a manuscript was made during active employment with the United States Federal Government, JDST grants free access to the entire article online. The copyright transfer is effective as specified by U.S. law.

    Articles are not published until all required forms are submitted to JDST.

    Published articles are made available, free of charge, after one year. This free access policy does not modify or invalidate any terms of the copyright transfer agreement between authors and Diabetes Technology Society.


    Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway



    JDST and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.


    Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.


    Contributor’s publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive license agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.


    Open access and author archiving

    JDST offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme. For more information please visit the Sage Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

    Manuscript Preparation


    The accepted format for your manuscript is Word.


    General Guidelines for Manuscript Format

    1. Format the manuscript with the following settings:
      • Top and bottom margins: 1 inch
      • Left and right margins: 1.5 inches
      • Page numbers at the bottom of the page: “page x of y
      • All text double-spaced
    2. Present all information in American English.
    3. Arrange manuscript information as outlined in the Manuscript Sequence section.
    4. Include the following five major sections when submitting a manuscript that presents original data:
    1. Introduction
    2. Methods
    3. Results
    4. Discussion
    5. Conclusions
    1. Create text and tables in Microsoft Word.
    2. Embed all graphics, figures, illustrations in the manuscript.
    3. Insert continuous line numbers throughout the document.
    4. Save the document and include in its filename the name of the first author and the text “manuscript 1”. For example, “SMITH Manuscript 1”.


    Manuscript Sequence

    Place the manuscript’s components in the following sequence and include the information necessary for each component:

    1. Title page (see an example of a title page)
      1. Full title of manuscript
      2. Author listing with full names, not initials (given name, then family name) and academic degree(s).
      3. Complete contact information for each author: first (given) and last (family) name, honorary title/designation(s) in medicine, affiliation, address, phone, fax, and e-mail address
      4. Complete list of abbreviations used in the manuscript
      5. 4–6 key words, in alphabetic order (for indexing purposes)
      6. Designated corresponding author: first and last name, complete postal address, and e-mail address
      7. Funding sources: list all sources of funding. If no funding was received, indicate “none.”
      8. Disclosures: list all potential personal or financial conflicts of interest for each author, e.g., employment or direct/indirect payments from companies, stock ownership, honoraria received, paid expert testimony. If there is no conflict for all authors, indicate “none.”
      9. Acknowledgments: submit written permission from all individuals mentioned in this section. If there are no acknowledgements to be made, indicate “none.”
      10. Figures and table count, (e.g. “6 figures, 2 tables”). If not all

    graphics are originals created by the author, please state “some material requires permission”.

    1. Abstract: submit the appropriate abstract with the manuscript.
    2. Body of manuscript that complies with JDST word limits.
    3. Reference listing: remove all links (e.g., EndNote) in the file version submitted to JDST.
    4. Tables and table legends.
    5. Figures and figure legends. For each figure or table that requires permission to reproduce, provide complete permission information within its caption. (See Figures, Illustrations, and Captions.)



    Abstracts and Abstract Word Limits

    Submit an abstract (i.e., summary) per the guidelines below:






    Type of Article

    Word limit

    Sections required


    250 words

    ÿ Background



    ÿ Method



    ÿ Results



    ÿ Conclusions


    250 words

    Written in any style


    125 words

    Written in any style


    125 words

    Written in any style

    Technology report

    125 words

    Written in any style

    Letter to the editor








    See an example of an abstract.


    Word Limits for Manuscripts

    The following word limits apply to the body of the manuscript only. The word limit does not apply to words used in the title page, abstract, figure legends, table headings, and reference listing.






    Type of Article

    Word Limit

    Original or Review

    3000 words


    1250 words

    Technology report

    1500 words


    2000 words

    Letter to the editor

    500 words


    English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should

    consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.


    General Writing Guidelines


    Units of Measurement

    Express units as mg/dl when referring to glucose concentrations. Express units in degrees Celsius when referring to temperature. Otherwise, use standard units of measurement.


    Spell out all terms and acronyms in titles, headings, and subheadings.

    In both the manuscript and abstract, write out the full term for an abbreviation at first use followed by its abbreviation in parentheses.

    Standard units of measure do not need to be spelled out.



    Format references using the biomedical journal format.

    Cite references in numerical order within the manuscript. Indicate a reference citation within an article, table, or figure by inserting Arabic numerals within square brackets or in superscript.

    In the references section (i.e., bibliography), list references in the same order as they were cited in the manuscript. When a website is cited as a reference, provide the date that the website was last accessed.

    Unpublished data and personal correspondence may be cited as references within the text itself and are not to be included in the list of references.

    Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of references used, and all text quoted.


    Footnotes and Endnotes

    Journal of JDST does not use footnotes or endnotes in its articles. Present all information in complete sentences in the manuscript’s text or include them in figure or table legends, as appropriate.


    Product Information

    For all commercial products mentioned in the manuscript, provide the

    manufacturer’s name, city, and state in parentheses at its first mention. For products manufactured outside of the USA, include the manufacturer’s name, city, and country.

    Product name use should be kept to a minimum. The editors prefer that product names be stated only once in the Methods section and not at all in the abstract or title. If your manuscript discusses two or more products, adapt a numbering method to refer to each product (i.e., Meter 1, Meter 2).


    Figures, Illustrations and Corresponding Captions/Legends:

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.


    All figures and illustrations should contain clean and clear graphics, and must be submitted electronically in their original format (e.g., png, jpeg, tif).


    Ensure that fonts are clear and easy to read should the figures be resized to      a 1-column or 2-column format during the layout process of publication.


    Please use the following guidelines when preparing your image files:














    Line Art

    An image (such as a


    900 – 1200


    simple graph)




    composed only of lines




    and text. It does not



    contain tonal or shaded






    A photograph

    JPEG, PNG,

    300 PPI


    containing no text.




    Image contains


    500 – 900






    as well as text or line








    For graphics reprinted from another source, provide written permission for

    reproduction from the copyright owner. Proof of permission may be uploaded as supplementary material during the initial submission or emailed directly to the editorial office. Include full credit for the original source in the manuscript’s text, figure legends, and/or in the acknowledgement section, as appropriate.

    Embed all images in the manuscript and submit separate files for each image in the original format it was created (e.g., png, jpeg, tiff).

    The filename for each image submitted should contain the surname of the first author and match its label in the manuscript (e.g., SMITH Figure 1).

    (See an example of a figure.)


    Tables and Table Headings

    Create tables in Word format within the manuscript.

    Use Arabic numerals to name tables (e.g. Table 1). Cite tables in the text in consecutive order. For each table, provide a table heading that clearly and concisely explains the content of the table.


    Indicate table footnotes with lower-case letters in superscript font. Place the information for the footnote beneath the body of the table.


    Indicate reference citations with an Arabic numeral and include them in the reference list, not in the table’s legend.

    If a table will be submitted as a separate document, the filename should contain the surname of the first author and match its label in the manuscript (e.g., SMITH Table 1).

    (See an example of a table.)


    JDST Policies

    Please refrain from using the word "diabetic" in reference to people in the manuscript. Suggested alternative terms are "patients with diabetes" or "individuals with diabetes." The use of the word "diabetic" is allowed when not referencing people (such as "diabetic foot").


    Manuscript Submission Process

    1. Submit manuscripts electronically to:

    1. Please include the following with your submission:
      1. A Word document that includes ALL the components of your                                       entire manuscript in the correct sequence. (See Manuscript Sequence). Please embed all images in this Word document.
      2. A separate file for each image embedded in the Word document, in the format in which it was originally created (e.g., png, jpeg, tiff).
      3. Permissions for any figures or tables that require it.


    Note: When sending password-protected documents, please provide  the password.

    An e-mail message will be sent to confirm the receipt of the manuscript.



    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.


    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications. If you wish to link a manuscript to your ORCID account, the ORCID ID must be added to your author account before submission or immediately after a manuscript is submitted. If a manuscript is accepted for publication, ORCID IDs cannot be added after the manuscript is sent to our production team. Corresponding authors should confirm whether their co- authors would like to add an ORCID ID before submitting their manuscript to the journal.


    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.


    Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).



    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway


    On acceptance and publication


    Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.


    Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.


    Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.


    Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.


    Guidelines for Submitting a Letter to the Editor

    Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology (JDST) welcomes letters on topics of diabetes science and technology. Letters may be opinion pieces, responses to articles that have been published in JDST, brief reports about personal observations, or responses to previously posted letters to the editor. JDST offers this forum to the diabetes technology community to facilitate the communication of ideas intended for rapid dissemination.

    Letters to the editor should contain a maximum of 500 words, and no abstract. They may include either one table or one figure (but not both), and are limited to six references.

    Letters to the editor should be double-spaced and include a title page per JDST specifications.


    If a letter is commenting on or responding to a previously published article or another letter to the editor, then the title of the article/letter in discussion should be included as the first citation. JDST reserves the right to ask authors of any cited articles to respond.

    Letters to the editor are reviewed by the editor-in-chief. If the letter is accepted for publication, authors will be asked to submit a contributor agreement form. Upon receipt of the release form, the letter will be prepared for publication and will be posted on JDST’s OnlineFirst section.

    To submit a letter to the editor, please upload it as a new submission to:


    Appealing the publication decision

    Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.


    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at


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