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Quantitative Research in Education

Quantitative Research in Education
A Primer

Second Edition

August 2015 | 176 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

The book provides a reference point for beginning educational researchers to grasp the most pertinent elements of designing and conducting research…

Megan Tschannen-Moran, The College of William & Mary


Quantitative Research in Education: A Primer, Second Edition is a brief and practical text designed to allay anxiety about quantitative research. Award-winning authors Wayne K. Hoy and Curt M. Adams first introduce readers to the nature of research and science, and then present the meaning of concepts and research problems as they dispel notions that quantitative research is too difficult, too theoretical, and not practical. Rich with concrete examples and illustrations, the Primer emphasizes conceptual understanding and the practical utility of quantitative methods while teaching strategies and techniques for developing original research hypotheses.


The Second Edition includes suggestions for empirical investigation and features a new section on self-determination theory, examples from the latest research, a concluding chapter illustrating the practical applications of quantitative research, and much more. This accessible Primer is perfect for students and researchers who want a quick understanding of the process of scientific inquiry and who want to learn how to effectively create and test ideas.

Chapter 1: The Nature of Research and Science
Ways of Knowing


The Nature of Science

The Scientific Approach

Theory: A Scientific Concept

Components of Theory

The Nature of Scientific Research

Types of Quantitative Research

Chapter 2: Concepts, Variables, and Research Problems


Operationalizing Concepts

Research Problems

Chapter 3: Conceptual Foundations of Statistics
Measures of Central Tendencies

Measures of Variability

Normal Distribution

Populations and Samples

Statistical Tests

Chapter 4: Analyzing the Structure and Substance of Hypotheses

Kinds of Hypotheses

Imposter and Misconceived Hypotheses

Finding Hypotheses in Research Studies

Analyzing and Diagramming Hypotheses

The Invisible Condition: “Other Things Being Equal”

Chapter 5: Generating Hypotheses
Ideas for New Hypotheses

Observing, Conceptualizing, and Hypothesizing

Searching for Theoretical Underpinnings

More Theory: More Hypotheses

Chapter 6: Practical Applications
Collective Trust

Organizational Climate

Guidelines for Improvement


The chapter on hypotheses is really helpful. Some of the other chapters seem to deliver the information much through the eyes of the authors, e.g. I personally find the heavy focus on "trus" a little too much, there are other constructs that would have deserved attention in the context of a topic as broad as "education". But the book is very well written and definitevely a valuable ressource for students.

Mrs Anne C Frenzel
Psychology , University of Munich
November 25, 2015

An interesting and specific needs driven book.

Mrs Jacqueline Ann Taylor
Department of Early Childhood and Education, Newman University
November 2, 2015
Key features


  • A new chapter devoted to the practical applications of education research uses the concepts of collective trust, organizational climate, and improvement science to illustrate the utility of a quantitative approach. It also offers guidelines for analyzing and improving the practice of research in education.
  • New hypotheses found in a variety of research studies are available for readers to analyze and diagram.
  • A new section on self-determination theory has been added to demonstrate the relation between theory and practice.
  • A new section on self-regulatory climate gives readers an opportunity to explore an exciting new area that they are likely to encounter in practice.  
  • A conceptual description of Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) has been added to help readers understand statistical data organized at more than one level.    


  • Education-specific concrete examples bring concepts to life and engage readers with relevant, meaningful illustrations.
  • Check Your Understanding exercises and questions assess the reader’s ability to understand, value, and apply the content of the chapter.  
  • Strategies and techniques for generating hypotheses help readers understand the process of creating their own hypotheses.
  • Key Terms are highlighted in the text when they first appear and then summarized in a list at the end of the chapter to help reinforce key concepts.
  • A Glossary concisely and clearly defines all the key terms in the text so readers have immediate access to ideas and concepts needing review.
  • Charts throughout the text allow readers to select appropriate statistical techniques for given scenarios.
  • The Diagramming Table (in Chapter 4) enables readers to diagram and dissect hypotheses by ensuring the key elements of a hypothesis are considered, analyzed, and understood.
  • An Elements of a Proposal section (Appendix A) gives readers directions for developing a quantitative research plan and motivates readers to get started—the most difficult step for many.
  • The A Few Writing Tips section (Appendix B) lists a number of salient writing suggestions to help readers avoid common mistakes found in formal writing.

Sample Materials & Chapters

Title Page

Chapter 1

Chapter 3

For instructors

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