You are here

Research Data Sharing Policies

At SAGE we are committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research. We support and encourage research data to be shared, discoverable, citable and recognised as an intellectual product of value.

The following guidelines outline SAGE’s general policy for handling the publication of research data alongside your published research, but please always refer to individual journal author guidelines to check for any bespoke policies.


What is ‘research data’?

‘Research data’ refers to units of information collected through the course of a research project, which the researcher then analyses to produce knowledge. Research data varies widely in format across disciplines, and can be anything from spreadsheets of quantifiable information, to sound recordings of an interview.


Why is open research data important?

In the academic community there is an increasing emphasis on researchers to share, archive and make their research data open and discoverable.

  • Open data sharing enables others to reuse results and build on previous findings, to improve efficiencies of the research process and to drive a faster pace of research and discovery.
  • Open Data supports transparency and validation of research. By ensuring that the data behind published research can be reproduced, this leads to a fairer, more robust and more accountable research landscape.
  • Ease of access and ease of discoverability means that there are more opportunities to find and extract knowledge.
  • Depositing data in a repository with a permanent identifier such as a DOI allows authors to cite the dataset, allowing authors to gain appropriate credit for their work, and ensures long term preservation of data.


What are SAGE’s research data sharing policies?

SAGE journals vary in their approach to, and requirements on data sharing, but the majority of SAGE journals subscribe to one of the following data sharing policies. Please check the Submission Guidelines for the journal you wish to submit to for the appropriate data sharing policy, and check any funder requirements.

Supports and encourages data sharing:

  • The journal encourages authors to share their research data and when relevant, authors are encouraged to deposit data in a suitable public repository.
  • When relevant, authors are encouraged to include a data accessibility statement within their article.
  • Authors are encouraged to follow data citation principles.
  • The above is subject to ethical considerations including ensuring that data sharing does not violate the protection of human subjects or other valid privacy or legal concerns. Queries should be raised with the journal editorial office.

Expects data sharing:

  • The journal expects authors to share their research data in an appropriate public repository.
  • Authors are required to include a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file, indicating if data is present or absent.
  • Authors are expected to follow data citation principles.
  • The above is subject to ethical considerations including ensuring that data sharing does not violate the protection of human subjects or other valid privacy or legal concerns. In these cases the journal editor may grant an exception and authors should contact the editorial office.

Requires data sharing:

  • The journal requires authors to share their research data in an appropriate public repository as a condition of publication.
  • Authors are required to include a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file.
  • Authors are required to follow data citation principles.
  • The above is subject to ethical considerations including ensuring that data sharing does not violate the protection of human subjects or other valid privacy or legal concerns and queries should be submitted to the journal editorial office at article submission stage.


How do I share my research data in a repository?

Research data should be submitted to discipline-specific, community-recognised repositories where possible, or to general-purpose repositories, if no suitable community resource is available. Authors can use FAIRsharing and to search for a suitable repository, both provide a list of certified data repositories.

If you share your research data on a repository please provide a URL link to your research data in your manuscript file under the heading ‘Data Accessibility Statement’, this URL link will be added to your article on publication. For more information, please go to ‘What is a Data Accessibility Statement?' below.


SAGE partnership with the Figshare Data Repository

A number of SAGE journals participate in a partnership with Figshare, an open repository of research data, whereby SAGE automatically archives your research data when you choose to submit this alongside your article, within the existing manuscript submission workflow.

All research datasets submitted will be assigned a DOI upon submission to Figshare to ensure the dataset is discoverable and citable. The dataset will also be displayed in a widget powered by Figshare next to the article on SAGE Journals, and will be available on the Figshare platform.

PLEASE BE AWARE that if your article is accepted, your accompanying research data will be published on the Figshare repository platform with a CC BY license, permitting unrestricted use of your data.

This is an optional service, and authors are not required to use this workflow for their research data, and can use other repositories if they prefer.


How do I use this service as a SAGE journal author?

If available at the journal level, authors will have the option to upload their research data during submission to the individual journal SAGETrack site. Authors have the option to upload their data at any submission or revision stage in the SAGETrack site. Please choose ‘Research Data’ as a file type from the file upload options.

Please supply a title and description for all research data items supplied. These can be included in a separate word document upon submission. If a title and description is not supplied the following title and description will be used: Title – “[File name] – Research Data for [Article title]”; Description – “Research Data, [File name], for [Article Title] by [Author names] in [Journal Title]”. The title and description will appear on SAGE Journals and also on the record in Figshare and will aid discoverability of the research data online.

If you have problems or concerns with uploading your research data to the SAGE journal when you submit you manuscript, please contact the individual journal editorial office.

Research data files will be uploaded online on publication as supplied. They will not be checked for accuracy, copyedited, typeset or proofread. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and file functionality remains with the authors. A disclaimer will be displayed to this effect with any material published. SAGE does not provide technical support for the publication of research data.


What file formats can be accepted?

Please click here for information on accepted file formats.

Please note that zip files can be hosted on the Figshare platform, but they will not appear in the Figshare widget which appears on SAGE Journals. There will simply be a link to the zip file hosted on Figshare.


How do I license my research data?

Where research data is held in repositories, the choice of license will be determined by the terms of the repository. An open access license that enables the maximum potential for reuse is usually preferred (typically CC0 or CC BY or equivalent).

Some journals or funders may mandate that authors make their data freely accessible to the public under a specific open access license.

For those authors choosing to utilise the SAGE partnership with Figshare PLEASE BE AWARE that if your article is accepted and you have submitted research data for publication alongside your article, your accompanying research data will be published on the Figshare repository platform with a CC BY license, permitting unrestricted use of your data.

Researchers should ideally decide how their research data is made available, but can only share data they are legally permitted to share or make public. SAGE will only publish research data and deposit to Figshare subject to full copyright clearance. This means that if the content of the file is not original to the author, then the author will be responsible for clearing (and paying, where necessary) all permissions prior to the publication or posting of any third party content. The author will be required to provide copies of permissions and details of the correct copyright acknowledgement. For advice on how to clear permission for material contained within the research data material, please visit SAGE’s Author Gateway Copyright and Permissions FAQs.

Please note that research data files are permanent records just like the articles themselves. Please visit SAGE’s Corrections Policy for information about SAGE research data correction policies.


What is a Data Accessibility Statement?

Data accessibility statements provide information about where the research data supporting the results reported in your paper can be found, and this statement should be included within the journal article, either in the abstract or under a separate heading ‘Data Accessibility Statement’ in the article file.

Where applicable, the Data Accessibility Statement should indicate which datasets underlie a paper, where the data is available and under what conditions they can be accessed. This should include clear links to the repository where the datasets are publicly archived.

Some funders require that Data Accessibility Statements be included in publications, and authors are responsible for following any funder-specific requirements.

Some journals ask authors to add a Data Accessibility Statement in their manuscript file, indicating if data is present or absent, please check the individual journal guidelines for best practice.

For authors choosing to utilise the SAGE partnership with Figshare, authors should write their statement, and indicate that you have uploaded the file(s) to SAGE. The SAGE production editor will then add a link to the research data during the production stages, which authors should carefully check when reviewing proofs.


What are data citation principles?

Where datasets are hosted in public repositories that provide datasets with Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs), we encourage these datasets to be formally cited in reference lists. Citations of datasets, when they appear in the reference list, should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite and follow journal style.

DataCite recommended format for data citation is as follows:

Creator (PublicationYear). Title. Publisher. Identifier (if available)


Additional Data Sharing Policies

Some SAGE journals may also endorse some or all of the following polices, and authors should consult individual journal Submission Guidelines for more information:


Open Practice Badges

In an effort to increase transparency and reproducibility, Open Science Framework (OSF) introduced badges that can be added to articles to indicate to readers if the paper has (1) open data (2) open materials and (3) if the study was preregistered. Authors can be awarded any, or all, of the three badges as long as they meet set criteria. Badges are visible on the article and on the table of contents, both online and (optionally) in print.

  1. Open Data: All digitally shareable data necessary to reproduce the reported results have been made available in a public, open access repository.
  2. Open MaterialsOpen Material Logo: All digitally shareable materials necessary to reproduce the reported methodology have been made available in a public, open-access repository.
  3. PreregisteredPreregistered Logo: The design and analysis plan for the reported research were preregistered in a public, open-access repository.TC (Transparent Changes) indicates that the analysis plan was altered but the preregistered analyses and rationale for change have been provided; DE (Data Exist) indicates that registration postdates realization of the outcomes but predates analysis. These will be denoted with superscript letters after the badge.

Some SAGE journals use badges to demonstrate compliance with Open Data policies, and please refer to individual journal manuscript guidelines. For more information on the criteria for these badges please refer to the Open Science Framework website here.


Data replication

Some journals will, as part of the peer review and decision making process, verify that the research design and data analysis are robust via running a replication of the data submitted. Please check individual Submission Guidelines for the journal.


Pre-Registration of studies

Preregistration of studies is a means of making research more discoverable even if it does not get published. Some journals will encourage preregistration and require links to pre-registrations if they exist; some journals might require pre-registration. Authors will be asked to indicate where the research was preregistered with an analysis plan in an independent institutional registry. Preregistration of studies involves registering the study design, variables and treatment conditions.


Code Ocean Trial

A select group of journals at SAGE run a trial with Code Ocean

Code Ocean is a cloud-based computational reproducibility platform that provides authors with an easy way to share code associated with their research. Code Ocean supports a number of different programming languages and assigns a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to the computational environment (code and data) providing correct attribution and a direct connection to the published research in the journal. 

This allows authors to get more visibility for their work by giving them the option to upload the code associated to their published article so that readers can view and execute it. The platform, which is based on Docker, hosts the code and data in the necessary computational environment and allows users to re-run the analysis in the cloud and reproduce the results, bypassing the need to install the software.

What do I do if I want to utilise the SAGE-Code Ocean trial?:

The following group of journals at SAGE run a trial with Code Ocean:

Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science
American Politics Research
Applied Psychological Measurement
International Journal of Robotics Research
Journal of Peace Research
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology

If you are a prospective author for one of these journals, or already have an article in submission, then get started by following the link and instructions below:

  • Go to, sign up, and select ‘create new capsule’. You will be prompted to upload your code and data, specifying the appropriate languages and dependencies within the computational environment, to create the “compute capsule”. If you have multiple sets of code and data, upload these simultaneously, and they can all be linked to your article. Code Ocean provides a service to assist authors with their platform if required, and this includes chat and email. There is also a help page at
  • You will be asked to provide the associated article title and select the journal you are publishing in. 
  • The Code Ocean team verifies that the code works and will instruct SAGE that the code is available and confirm the DOI. SAGE will then ensure that there is a direct link to the code from the published article on the SAGE Journals website. Similarly Code Ocean will link direct to the research article in the journal once this is published, from the code. 
  • If you have questions relating to the linking of your SAGE journal article to code available on the Code Ocean site, please email the SAGE production editor, who will first contact you during the article proofing process.