# Exploratory Factor Analysis

- W. Holmes Finch - Ball State University, USA

**Volume:**182

**Courses:**

Intermediate/Advanced Statistics | Quantitative Methods | Quantitative Research Methods in Education | Quantitative Research Methods in Education | Statistics - General Interest | Statistics in Criminal Justice | Statistics in Political Science | Statistics in Psychology | Statistics in Sociology

September 2019 | 144 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

A firm knowledge of factor analysis is key to understanding much published research in the social and behavioral sciences.

**Exploratory Factor Analysis**by W. Holmes Finch provides a solid foundation in exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which along with confirmatory factor analysis, represents one of the two major strands in this field. The book lays out the mathematical foundations of EFA; explores the range of methods for extracting the initial factor structure; explains factor rotation; and outlines the methods for determining the number of factors to retain in EFA. The concluding chapter addresses a number of other key issues in EFA, such as determining the appropriate sample size for a given research problem, and the handling of missing data. It also offers brief introductions to exploratory structural equation modeling, and multilevel models for EFA. Example computer code, and the annotated output for all of the examples included in the text are available on an accompanying website.Chapter One: Introduction to Factor Analysis

Latent and Observed Variables

The Importance of Theory in Doing Factor Analysis

Comparison of Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

EFA and Other Multivariate Data Reduction Techniques

A Brief Word About Software

Outline of the Book

Chapter Two: Mathematical Underpinnings of Factor Analysis

Correlation and Covariance Matrices

The Common Factor Model

Correspondence Between the Factor Model and the Covariance Matrix

Eigenvalues

Error Variance and Communalities

Summary

Chapter Three: Methods of Factor Extraction in Exploratory Factor Analysis

Eigenvalues, Factor Loadings, and the Observed Correlation Matrix

Maximum Likelihood

Principal Axis Factoring

Principal Components Analysis

Principal Components Versus Factor Analysis

Other Factor Extraction Methods

Example

Summary

Chapter Four: Methods of Factor Rotation

Simple Structure

Orthogonal Versus Oblique Rotation Methods

Common Orthogonal Rotations

Common Oblique Rotations

Target Factor Rotation

Bifactor Rotation

Example

Deciding Which Rotation to Use

Summary

Appendix

Chapter Five: Methods for Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in Exploratory Factor Analysis

Scree Plot and Eigenvalue Greater Than 1 Rule

Objective Methods Based on the Scree Plot

Eigenvalues and the Proportion of Variance Explained

Residual Correlation Matrix

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test for Maximum Likelihood

Parallel Analysis

Minimum Average Partial

Very Simple Structure

Example

Summary

Chapter Six: Final Issues in Factor Analysis

Proper Reporting Practices for Factor Analysis

Factor Scores

Power Analysis and A Priori Sample Size Determination

Dealing With Missing Data

Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

Multilevel EFA

Summary

### Supplements

Resource Center

Example computer code, and the annotated output for all of the examples included in the text are available on the accompanying website.

Example computer code, and the annotated output for all of the examples included in the text are available on the accompanying website.

This text is a perfect resource for individuals seeking guidance on applied factor analysis, covering the fundamentals as well as introductions to more advanced aspects of factor analytic techniques.

Utah State University

Review

Finch provides a well-written and well-organized introduction to the conceptual and quantitative topics of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis within a single, concise text.

Iowa State University

Review

This is a thorough and readable introduction to exploratory factor analysis

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Review