Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Author

PART I • INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS AND STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS

Chapter 1 • Basic Concepts

Variables, Values, and Scores

Sampling, Sampling Bias, and Sampling Error

A Preview of What’s Ahead

Appendix 1.1: Introduction to Excel

Appendix 1.2: Introduction to SPSS

Appendix 1.3: An Introduction to R

Chapter 2 • Distributions of Scores

Distributions of Qualitative Variables

Distributions of Discrete Quantitative Variables

Distributions of Continuous Variables

Probability Distributions

Appendix 2.1: Grouped Frequency Tables and Histograms in Excel

Appendix 2.2: Grouped Frequency Tables and Histograms in SPSS

Chapter 3 • Properties of Distributions

Appendix 3.1: Basic Statistics in Excel

Appendix 3.2: Basic Statistics in SPSS

Chapter 4 • Normal Distributions

The Standard Normal Distribution: z-Scores

Area-Under-the-Curve Problems: Approximate Solutions

Area-Under-the-Curve Problems: Exact Solutions

Appendix 4.1: NORM.DIST and Related Functions in Excel

Chapter 5 • Distributions of Statistics

The Distribution of Sample Means

Area-Under-the-Curve Questions

The Distribution of Sample Variances

Appendix 5.1: Statistical Distribution Functions in Excel

PART II • ESTIMATION AND SIGNIFICANCE TESTS (ONE SAMPLE)

Chapter 6 • Estimating the Population Mean When the Population Standard Deviation Is Known

Point Estimates Versus Interval Estimates

(1-a)100% Confidence Intervals

Cautions About Interpretation

Estimating µ When Sample Size Is Large

A Word About Jerzy Neyman

Appendix 6.1: Computing Confidence Intervals in Excel

Chapter 7 • Significance Tests

A Scenario: Whole Language Versus Phonics

Computing Exact p-Values: Directional and Non-directional Tests

The Alternative Hypothesis

p-Values Are Conditional Probabilities

Using s to Estimate s (An Approximate z-Test)

Statistical Significance Versus Practical Significance

Review of Significance Tests

Appendix 7.1: Significance Tests in Excel

Chapter 8 • Decisions, Power, Effect Size, and the Hybrid Model

The Determinants of Power

Prospective Power Analysis: Planning Experiments

The Hybrid Model: Null Hypothesis Significance Testing

Chapter 9 • Significance Tests: Problems and Alternatives

Significance Tests Under Fire

Criticisms of Significance Tests

Estimating d = (µ1 - µ0)/s

Estimation Versus Significance Testing

Chapter 10 • Estimating the Population Mean When the Standard Deviation Is Unknown

Confidence Intervals: Estimating µ

Estimating the Difference Between Two Population Means

Appendix 10.1: Confidence Intervals and Significance Tests in Excel

Appendix 10.2: Confidence Intervals and Significance Tests in SPSS

Appendix 10.3: Exact Confidence Intervals for d Using MBESS in R

PART III • ESTIMATION AND SIGNIFICANCE TESTS (TWO SAMPLES)

Chapter 11 • Estimating the Difference Between the Means of Independent Populations

The Two-Independent-Groups Design

Theoretical Foundations for the (1-a)100% Confidence Interval for µ1 - µ2

Interpretation of Our Riddle Study

Appendix 11.1: Estimation and Significance Tests in Excel

Appendix 11.2: Estimation and Significance Tests in SPSS

Chapter 12 • Estimating the Difference Between the Means of Dependent Populations

Dependent Versus Independent Populations

The Distributions of D and mD

Repeated Measures and Matched Samples

Estimating d for Dependent Populations

Appendix 12.1: Estimation and Significance Tests in Excel

Appendix 12.2: Estimation and Significance Tests in SPSS

Chapter 13 • Introduction to Correlation and Regression

Associations Between Two Scale Variables

Correlation and Regression

The Correlation Coefficient

Many Bivariate Distributions Have the Same Statistics

Random Variables, Experiments, and Causation

Appendix 13.1: Correlation and Regression in Excel

Chapter 14 • Inferential Statistics for Simple Linear Regression

Regression When Values of x Are Fixed: Theory

Regression When x Values Are Fixed: An Example

Regression When x Is a Random Variable

Regression When x Is a Random Variable: An Example

Estimating the Expected Value of y: E(y|x)

Appendix 14.1: Inferential Statistics for Regression in Excel

Appendix 14.2: Inferential Statistics for Regression in SPSS

Chapter 15 • Inferential Statistics for Correlation

The Sampling Distribution of r

What Is a Big Correlation and What Is the Practical Significance of r?

The Correlation Coefficient Is a Standardized Effect Size: Meta-Analysis

The Generality of Correlation

Appendix 15.1: Correlation Analysis in Excel

Appendix 15.2: Correlation Analysis in SPSS

PART IV • THE GENERAL LINEAR MODEL

Chapter 16 • Introduction to Multiple Regression

Parameters and Statistics in Multiple Regression

Using SPSS to Conduct Multiple Regression

Comparing Regression Models

Confidence Intervals for yˆ and Prediction Intervals for yNEXT

Discussion of Our Example: To Add TIE or Not to Add TIE

Appendix 16.1: Bootstrapped Confidence Intervals for ?R2

Chapter 17 • Applying Multiple Regression

The Regression Coefficients

Appendix 17.1: Installing the PROCESS Macro in SPSS

Chapter 18 • Analysis of Variance: One-Factor Between-Subjects

The One-Factor, Between-Subjects ANOVA

Corrections for Multiple Contrasts

Regression and ANOVA Are the Same Thing

Chapter 19 • Analysis of Variance: One-Factor Within-Subjects

An Example: The Posner Cuing Task

Confidence Intervals and Significance Tests for Contrasts

Conducting the One-Factor Within-Subjects ANOVA in SPSS

Chapter 20 • Two-Factor ANOVA: Omnibus Effects

Main Effects and Interactions in a 3 × 4 Design

Partitioning Variability Among Means: Orthogonal Decomposition

An Example: The Texture Discrimination Task

The Two-Factor Between-Subjects Design

The Two-Factor Within-Subjects Design

The Two-Factor Mixed Design

Unequal Sample Sizes and Missing Data

Why Bother With Main Effects and Interactions?

Chapter 21 • Contrasts in Two-Factor Designs

An Overview of First-Order and Second-Order (Interaction) Contrasts

The Two-Factor, Between-Subjects Design

The Two-Factor, Within-Subjects Design

The Two-Factor Mixed Design

Selected Answers to Chapter Exercises

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Glossary

References

Index