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The International Journal of Artificial Organs

The International Journal of Artificial Organs

eISSN: 17246040 | ISSN: 03913988 | Current volume: 47 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: Monthly
The International Journal of Artificial Organs (IJAO) publishes peer-reviewed research and clinical, experimental and theoretical, contributions to the field of artificial, bioartificial and tissue-engineered organs. The mission of the IJAO is to foster the development and optimization of artificial, bioartificial and tissue-engineered organs, for implantation or use in procedures, to treat functional deficits of all human tissues and organs.

The International Journal of Artificial Organs (IJAO) is the Official Journal of the European Society for Artificial Organs (ESAO).

The International Journal of Artificial Organs (IJAO) publishes peer-reviewed research and clinical, experimental and theoretical, contributions to the field of artificial, bioartificial and tissue-engineered organs. The mission of the IJAO is to foster the development and optimization of artificial, bioartificial and tissue-engineered organs, for implantation or use in procedures, to treat functional deficits of all human tissues and organs.

The topics of interest range from the initial concept to clinical application, and are grouped in the following independent sections managed by highly qualified Editors:

Apheresis, dialysis and liver support
Joachim Jankowski, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Antonio Santoro, Policlinico Sant'Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy

This section focuses on devices and procedures for blood detoxification processes using membranes or sorbents, such as hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration, plasmapheresis, immune apheresis, leukoapheresis, and processes for plasma procurement and the preparation of plasma derivatives. The section includes systems for blood detoxification and support of liver metabolic failure..

Cardiac assist devices and artificial heart
Steven Jacobs, UZ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Aldo Domenico Milano, Ospedale Borgo Trento, Verona, Italy

This section deals with left ventricular assist devices, trans-apical by-pass, extracorporeal heart assist devices, total artificial heart, valve implants, vascular prostheses, and organ perfusion equipment and techniques.

Artificial lung, ECMO and respiratory support
Khosrow Mottaghy, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Filip De Somer, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

This section focuses on prostheses and procedures for the treatment of acute and chronic respiratory failure, development and clinical use of ECMO systems.

Sensory organs and neural stimulation
Manfred Bijak, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

This section covers artificial and bioartificial tissues and organs to replace/correct sensory deficits (e.g., ear, eye etc.), as well as nerve and central nervous system stimulation.

Tissue engineering, bioartificial organs and regenerative medicine
Manuela Raimondi, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy
Dimitrios Stamatialis, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands

This section focuses on the development, characterization and use of bioengineered tissues and organs, and on techniques to investigate and promote tissue or organ self-regeneration including cell therapies.

Biomaterials and nanotechnology
John Hunt, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
Joerg Vienken, Biosciences, Usingen, Germany

This section deals with the development, manufacturing, modification, and characterization of synthetic and natural materials with controlled properties, down to the nanometer scale, that make them capable of contacting body fluids and cells for prosthetic and therapeutic applications.

Personalized medicine and individualized care
Harald Mischak, Mosaiques Diagnostic and Therapeutics AG, Hannover, Germany
Michael Brier, University of Louisville, USA

This section covers genomic, proteomic, metabolomic and computational characterization of pathological conditions, and on how this information may be used to custom tailored treatments based on artificial, bioartificial and tissue engineered organs.

Mechanical prostheses, robotics and medical technology
Marcel Rutten, TU/e University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

This section deals with the development and clinical use of mechanical prostheses and robotic systems, as well with new and emerging medical technologies for assistance of patients with organ or tissue failure, in need of rehabilitation and disease prevention.

Editor in Chief
Prof. Andrea Remuzzi University of Bergamo, Italy
ESAO Editor
Prof. Thomas Groth Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany
Founding Editor and Coordinating Editor
Prof. Diego Brancaccio NephroCare, Italy
Honorary Editor
Prof. Claudio Ronco International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza (IRRIV), Italy
Coordinating Editors
Dr. George Dunea University of Illinois, USA
Dr. Tofy Mussivand University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Canada
Dr. Akiba Takashi Tokyo Women's Medical University, Japan
Section Editors
Dr. Manfred Bijak Medical University of Vienna, Austria
Dr. Michael Brier University of Louisville, USA
Prof. Filip De Somer Ghent University, Belgium
Dr. Aldo Domenico Milano University of Bari, Italy
Prof. John Hunt University of Liverpool, UK
Dr. Steven Jacobs UZ Leuven, Belgium
Prof. Joachim Jankowski Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, Germany
Prof. Harald Mischak Mosaiques Diagnostics and Therapeutics AG, Germany
Prof. Khosrow Mottaghy Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, Germany
Dr. Manuela Raimondi Politecnico di Milano, Italy
Dr. Marcel Rutten TU/e University of Technology, The Netherlands
Dr. Antonio Santoro Policlinico Sant'Orsola-Malpighi, Italy
Prof. Dimitrios Stamatialis Unviersity of Twente, Netherlands
Dr. Jörg Vienken Medical Device Technology, Technical University Aachen, Germany
Editorial Board
Prof. Heinrich Schima Medical University of Vienna, Austria
Dr Stephen Ash HemoCleanse, Inc., USA
Prof. Stephen Badylak University of Pittsburgh, USA
Dr. Andrea Buscaroli Ospedale Santa Maria delle Croci, Italy
Dr. Kenneth M.C. Cheung University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Prof Zhanfeng Cui Oxford University, UK
Prof. Peter Czermak University of Apllied Sciences Giessen, Germany
Dr. Angel De Francisco Universidad de Cantabria, Spain
Dr Alicia J. El Haj Keele University, UK
Dr. Fabrizio Fabrizi Maggiore Hospital, IRCCS Foundation, Italy
Prof. Joerg Gerlach MD, PhD University of Pittsburgh, USA
Prof. Birgit Glasmacher Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Germany
Dr. Jonathan Himmelfarb University of Washington, USA
Dr. Nicholas A. Hoenich Newcastle University, UK
Dr. Robin Hughes King's College London, UK
Dr.Ing Ulrich Kertzscher Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany
Dr. Ingrid Ledebo Gambro Corporate Research, Sweden
Prof. Edward Leonard Columbia University, USA
Dr. Mona Marei Alexandria University, Egypt
Prof. Dr. Ivan Martin University Hospital Basel, Switzerland
Prof. Bart Meyns Catholic University Leuven, Belgium
Dr. Marco Morra Nobil Bio Ricerche, Italy
Prof. Gerhard Rakhorst University Medical Center Groningen, Netherlands
Prof. Rui Reis University of Minho, Portugal
Dr. Giuseppe Remuzzi Mario Negri Institute, Italy
Dr. Igor Sauer Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany
Dr. Shimon Slavin International Center for Cell Therapy & Cancer Immunotherapy, Israel
Dr. Marco Somaschini Clinica Santâ Anna, Switzerland
Prof. Sergio Stefoni S. Orsola University Hospital, Italy
Dr Hiroyuki Tanaka Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Japan
Dr. Visith Thongboonkerd Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University, Thailand
Prof. Raymond Vanholder University Hospital Gent, Belgium
Dr Nostratola D. Vaziri University of California Irvine, USA
Prof. Bart Verkerke University of Groningen, Netherlands
Prof. Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic University of Colombia, USA
Dr. Beat Walpoth Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland
Prof. Carmine Zoccali Azienda Ospedaliera Bianchi Melacrino Morelli, Italy
Dr. Joseph Zwischenberger University of Kentucky, USA
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: The International Journal of Artificial Organs 

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of The International Journal of Artificial Organs  will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.4 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.7 Clinical trials
      2.8 Reporting guidelines
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Publication charges
      3.4 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to The International Journal of Artificial Organs, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article Types

    Original research articles

    Previously unpublished manuscripts, describing clinical, pre-clinical, epidemiological investigations, clinical trials, clinical observations, and other relevant investigations that are based on sound patient series, validated analytical methods, and appropriate statistical evaluation.

    Original research articles should be structured as follows: Introduction (clearly stating an objective or hypothesis), Methods (describing the study design and methods applied, including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, and/or participation or response rates, or data sources, and how these were selected for the study), Results (describing the results of the study in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations), and Discussion (addressing relevant implications for clinical practice or health policy). A structured abstract is required.

    Words: max 3000 (excluding figures and tables)
    Figures/Tables: max 6
    References: max 50


    Clinical trial protocols

    A clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human participants to intervention or comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between an intervention and a health outcome. Each manuscript should be divided as follows: Introduction (stating an objective or hypothesis of the protocols), Methods (describing the design and statistical methods applied, including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria), Results (including data on recruitment, etc.), and Discussion (placing the protocol in context with the published literature). A structured abstract is required, and trial registration information (name, number, and URL) must be listed in the title page.

    Words: max 3000 (excluding figures and tables)
    Figures/Tables: max 6
    References: max 50



    Reviews are solicited by the Editor in Chief on topics that are deemed to be relevant to the audience of the Journal. Containing the current state of knowledge or practice, integrating recent advances with accepted principles and practice, or summarizing and analyzing consensus view of controversial issues in knowledge of practice. A non-structured abstract is required.

    Words: max 5000 (excluding figures and tables)
    Figures/Tables: max 8
    References: no limit



    The purpose of the editorials is to provide the reader with a balanced overview of relevant and up to date subjects concerning the Journal's aim or future direction. A non-structured abstract is not required.

    Words: max 4000 (excluding figures and tables)
    Figures/Tables: max 8
    References: No limit


    Short communications

    This article type reports of results from original researches. They must provide conclusive findings: preliminary observations or incomplete findings cannot be considered for publication. A non-structured abstract is required.

    Words: max 2000 (excluding figures and tables)
    Figures/Tables: max 3
    References: max 20



    Letters to the Editor are intended to present opinions or comments on articles published in the Journal. Letters are subject to abridgement and editing for style and content. An abstract is not required.

    If you are the corresponding author of an article cited in a Letter to the Editor and receive an email invitation to comment on it, you must log in to the system, accept the invitation immediately, and then upload and submit your reply to the Editorial Office. The response must cite the title of the letter, e.g., “Response to (Title of Letter)”.

    Words: max 500 (excluding figures and tables)
    Figures/Tables: 1
    References: max 5

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Manuscripts that do not adhere to the guidelines for submission will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing the peer review process. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication will be rejected promptly.

    Peer review is the process we use to assess the quality of a manuscript to see if it suitable for publication. Independent researchers with similar competencies assess submitted manuscripts for originality, validity and importance to help our Editors determine if a manuscript is suitable for publication in their journal.

    We utilise a single-anonymize peer-review system, which is considered to be self-regulating. Reviewers are aware of the names and affiliations of the authors, but the reviewer assessments provided to authors are completely anonymous. The single-anonymize peer review system is the most commonly-used method of review and most Reviewers are comfortable with this approach, as it facilitates an impartial appraisal of a manuscript.

    Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by two or more referees who evaluate whether the manuscript is scientifically logical and well-constructed, focussing specifically on if it duplicates previously published work, and if there are clear grounds for it to be considered for publication. The Editors establish their decision based on these reports and, if necessary, they can discuss with members of the Editorial Board.

    We aim to provide authors with a first decision (of accept, reject or revisions required whether minor or major) within 4 weeks.

    All correspondence related to the submission, including editorial decisions, will be sent by email to the corresponding author. In case of revision, detailed revision instructions will be sent and a point-by-point response will be required. The Journal does not reveal the identity of its reviewers.

    Authors can check the status of their manuscript at any time by logging into the journal's submission system, Sage track.

    Appeals and complaints
    If you would like to appeal a rejection decision or make a complaint, please contact the Publisher who will outline the journal's complaints procedure.

    As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the name of a minimum of 1 peer who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    You will also be asked to nominate peers who you do not wish to review your manuscript (opposed reviewers).

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite/reject any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    • Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    • Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    • Approved the version to be published,
    • Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    .Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

     2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions
    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    The International Journal of Artificial Organs  requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of The International Journal of Artificial Organs  to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. . Experimental research performed on animals must comply with the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals or equivalent. A statement that research has been performed according to the NIH Guidelines must be included in the Methods section.

    2.7 Clinical trials

    The International Journal of Artificial Organs endorses the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment. However, consistent with the AllTrials campaign, retrospectively registered trials will be considered if the justification for late registration is acceptable. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives


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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    The International Journal of Artificial Organs and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.3 Publication charges

    There is no charge for publishing in The International Journal of Artificial Organs for articles or other contributions equal to or less than 4,000 words. For any contribution over 4,000 words a publication charge of £300 (Fee is waivered for ESAO members) (plus VAT where applicable) to support the costs of dissemination will apply. The 4,000 word limit includes the title, abstract, keywords, main article, tables, declarations, any acknowledgments or notes, and references. 

    Sage may choose to publish selected articles prior to payment; however publication of the accepted article does not constitute waiving of the charge. Sage reserves the right to refuse future submissions if there are outstanding payments due.

    An invoice will be sent to your nominated billing address. Payment terms are 30 days from the invoice date.

    3.4 Open access and author archiving

    The International Journal of Artificial Organs offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines  

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files

    4.4 Reference style

    The International Journal of Artificial Organs adheres to the Sage Vancouver reference style. View the Sage Vancouver guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

     If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the Sage Vancouver EndNote output file

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    The International Journal of Artificial Organs is hosted on Sage track, a web based online submission and peer review system. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. 

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. 

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. 

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to The International Journal of Artificial Organs editorial office as follows:

    Individual Subscription, E-access

    Individual Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

    Institutional Subscription, E-access

    Institutional Subscription & Backfile Lease, E-access Plus Backfile (All Online Content)

    Institutional Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

    Institutional Subscription & Backfile Lease, Combined Plus Backfile (Current Volume Print & All Online Content)

    Institutional Backfile Purchase, E-access (Content through 1998)

    Individual, Single Print Issue

    Institutional, Single Print Issue